December 10: Yang qualifies for PBS NewsHour/POLITICO December debate.
December 8: Yang announced that he had hired Julia Rosen to lead his digital operations and Ally Letsky to lead his direct mail operations. Letsky worked on the 2012 Obama and 2016 Clinton presidential campaigns.
November 24: Yang said he would not appear on MSNBC until the network apologizes for limiting his inclusion in the debate and omitting him in reports on fundraising and polling.
November 13: Ten candidates, including Yang, qualified for the fifth Democratic primary debate. The debate will take place on November 20, 2019, at Tyler Perry Studios in Atlanta, Georgia.
November 7: Yang aired his first ad in Iowa, "New Way Forward," as part of a $1 million ad buy in the state.
October 15: Yang participated in the 4th Democratic primary debate in Westerville.
October 1: Yang raised $10 million in the third quarter of 2019, more than tripling his fundraising total from the second quarter.
September 16: The Yang campaign said it collected 450,000 email addresses, 90 percent of which were new, in the 72 hours following Yang’s universal basic income proposal on the debate stage.
September 12: Yang participated in the third Democratic primary debate in Houston. ABC News and Univision broadcast the debate and Linsey Davis, David Muir, Jorge Ramos, and George Stephanopoulos moderated. The candidates discussed Medicare for All, criminal justice, international trade agreements, gun violence, military strategy in Afghanistan, education, and climate change.
September 7: Yang spoke at the Democratic Party of New Hampshire's annual convention along with 18 other candidates.
September 5: Yang said he would not run as a third-party candidate if he lost the Democratic nomination because it would increase Trump’s chances of winning.
August 26: Yang issued his $4.9 trillion climate change proposal which has five prongs: building a sustainable economy transitioned to renewable energy, investing in American innovation and technology to power the world, moving coastal communities to higher ground, using geoengineering to reverse the damage, and passing a constitutional amendment on environmental stewardship.
August 26: Yang made a climate policy announcement in New Hampshire.
August 8: Yang qualified for the third and fourth Democratic presidential primary debates, reaching the polling threshold of 2 percent or more in a fourth eligible poll. Yang previously announced he had reached the grassroots fundraising bar and the polling threshold last week before the Democratic National Committee clarified its polling rules, leaving Yang one short.
August 3-4: The 2020 Democratic candidates responded to the mass shootings in El Paso, Texas, and Dayton, Ohio, in formal statements, interviews, and tweets. Candidates focused on Trump’s rhetoric on immigrants, congressional inaction, and gun violence policies.
July 31: The second night of the second Democratic presidential primary debate was broadcast from Detroit, Michigan, on CNN. Yang participated. At the debate, Yang said “the opposite of Donald Trump is an Asian man who likes math” and the country needed to do something different. He highlighted his universal basic income proposal in several contexts, including pay equity for homemakers. Yang also said money spent on conflicts abroad should have been invested in U.S. communities.
July 30: The Democratic National Committee clarified that a candidate can only use one NBC-sponsored national poll to qualify for the third Democratic presidential debate, leaving Yang one poll short of qualifying.
July 29: Yang announced that he has qualified for the third Democratic presidential primary debate in September, becoming the eighth candidate to do so.
July 22: In his plan for veterans, Yang proposed allowing veterans to receive relevant civilian certifications without additional licensing and providing in-state tuition at any public school in any state. Yang also called for increasing funding for veterans crisis lines and changing the Veterans Affairs healthcare network.
July 11: Yang announced that he raised $2.8 million in the second quarter of 2019.
July 1: Yang reached the donor threshold for the third and fourth presidential debates.
June 27: At the first Democratic debate, Yang said Russia was the greatest geopolitical threat and that Chinese intellectual property theft should not be addressed through tariffs. He said the first international relationship he would reset would be China to seek cooperation on climate change, artificial intelligence, and North Korea.
June 26: Yang tweeted that he had reached 128,000 unique donors, nearing the 130,000-donor threshold to qualify for the third presidential debate.
June 22: Yang and 21 other Democratic candidates spoke at the South Carolina Democratic Convention. This was a record-breaking number of presidential candidates speaking at the state party's convention, The Greenville News reported.
May 1: Yang will give $1,000 per month to two families in New Hampshire and Iowa as a demonstration of his Universal Basic Income plan. Yang said he wanted to expand the offering to families in Nevada and South Carolina.
April 25: Yang released a new policy statement on the timing of payments for small businesses and cashflow issues.
April 18: Yang released a new policy statement on cryptocurrencies and digital assets.
April 14: Yang participated in a CNN town hall, where he discussed universal basic income, doctored information online, and decriminalizing heroin. He also responded to questions about white nationalist support for his campaign.
April 3: Yang said that he would legalize marijuana and pardon anyone convicted of a nonviolent drug-related offense on April 20, 2021.
April 2: Yang reported raising $1.7 million in the first quarter of 2019 from more than 80,000 individual donors. The average donation was under $18.
March 31: Yang released a new policy calling for federal agencies to be relocated to boost local economies and reduce cost and infrastructure issues in Washington, D.C.
March 18: Yang proposed a 10 percent value-added tax on companies like Amazon and Google.
March 11: Yang reached the 65,000-donor threshold to participate in the first primary debate.
Andrew Yang is a Democratic candidate for president of the United States in 2020. He filed to run for the office on November 6, 2017.
The cornerstone of Yang's platform is the universal basic income (UBI). Yang describes the UBI as "a form of social security that guarantees a certain amount of money to every citizen within a given governed population, without having to pass a test or fulfill a work requirement." Yang's UBI proposal is a payment of $1,000 per month for every adult American citizen.
Prior to running for office, Yang founded the nonprofit organization Venture for America, which trains recent graduates to work for startups. He also worked for a healthcare startup, founded a national education company, and practiced law as a corporate attorney.
Yang was born in 1975 and grew up in Schenectady, New York. He received a B.A. in economics and political science from Brown University and a J.D. from Columbia University School of Law.
Yang practiced corporate law for five months before becoming involved with startups in the areas of fundraising, healthcare, and education. His first effort was Stargiving.com, a website he launched in 2000 aimed at getting celebrities to make charitable donations. The site was unsuccessful, and he went on to serve as vice president of the healthcare software startup MMF Systems from 2002 to 2005. The following year, Yang founded the educational startup Manhattan Prep, where he served as CEO and president until 2011. In 2009, the company was acquired by Kaplan.
In 2011, Yang founded Venture for America, a nonprofit organization that trains recent graduates and young professionals to work for startup companies in cities such as Baltimore, Detroit, Pittsburgh, and Cleveland. President Barack Obama (D) gave Yang the Champion of Change award in 2012 and named him presidential ambassador for global entrepreneurship in 2015.
Yang also wrote two books: Smart People Should Build Things in 2014 and The War on Normal People: The Truth About America's Disappearing Jobs and Why Universal Basic Income Is Our Future in 2018.
Prior to his 2020 presidential bid, Yang had not run for public office.
An election for president of the United States will be held on November 3, 2020. Yang filed to run for president on November 6, 2017.
Do you generally support pro-choice or pro-life legislation?
1. In order to balance the budget, do you support an income tax increase on any tax bracket?
- Unknown Position
2. Do you support expanding federal funding to support entitlement programs such as Social Security and Medicare?
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Do you support requiring states to adopt federal education standards?
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1. Do you support the federal regulation of greenhouse gas emissions?
2. Do you support government funding for the development of renewable energy (e.g. solar, wind, geo-thermal)?
Do you generally support gun-control legislation?
Do you support repealing the 2010 Affordable Care Act ("Obamacare")?
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Do you support the regulation of indirect campaign contributions from corporations and unions?
1. Do you support federal spending as a means of promoting economic growth?
2. Do you support lowering corporate taxes as a means of promoting economic growth?
1. Do you support the construction of a wall along the Mexican border?
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2. Do you support requiring immigrants who are unlawfully present to return to their country of origin before they are eligible for citizenship?
1. Should the United States use military force to prevent governments hostile to the U.S. from possessing a weapon of mass destruction (for example: nuclear, biological, chemical)?
- Unknown Position
2. Do you support reducing military intervention in Middle East conflicts?
Do you generally support removing barriers to international trade (for example: tariffs, quotas, etc.)?
Do you support increasing defense spending?
George S.: (00:14)Candidates, welcome. Vice President Biden, the first question is for you. In the last few days, you've been saying that Democrats will be taking too big a risk if they nominate Senator Sanders or Mayor Buttigieg, but they came out on top in Iowa. What risks did the Iowa Democrats miss? Joe Biden: (00:32)Oh, they didn't miss anything. It's a long race. I took a hit in Iowa and I'll probably take a hit here. Traditionally Bernie won by 20 points last time. And usually it's the neighboring senators that do well. But no matter what, I'm still in this for the same reason, we have to restore the soul of this country, bring back the middle class and make sure we bring people together. And so it's a simple proposition. It doesn't matter whether it's this one or the next. I've always viewed the first four encounters, two primaries, and two caucuses as the starting point. And so that's how I view it. George S.: (01:08)Why are Senator Sanders and Mayor Buttigieg too big a risk for Democrats? Joe Biden: (01:12)Well, you know that with regard to Senator Sanders, the President wants very much to sic a label on every candidate. We're going to not only have to win this time, we have to bring along the United States Senate. And Bernie's labeled himself, not me, a democratic socialist. I think that's the label that the President's going to lay on everyone running with Bernie if he's a nominee. And a Mayor Buttigieg is a great guy and a real patriot. He's a mayor of a small city, who has done some good things but has not demonstrated he has the ability to, and we'll soon find out, to get a broad scope of support across the spectrum, including African Americans and Latinos. George S.: (01:53)Senator Sanders, let me give you the chance to respond first. President Trump certainly thinks this label socialism will work. At the State of the Union, he said, "Socialism destroys nations. He's never going to let socialism destroy American healthcare." And before the Super Bowl, he joked was Sean Hannity about your honeymoon in Moscow. Those hits are going to keep coming if you're the nominee. Why shouldn't Democrats be worried? Bernie Sanders: (02:14)Because Donald Trump lies all the time. It doesn't matter what Donald Trump says, it's a sad state of affairs, it really is. He will say terrible things about Joe, he has [inaudible 00:02:32] ugly, disgusting things about Elizabeth, about Amy, about anybody else who was up here. But I think George, that at the end of the day, the way we defeat Donald Trump and everybody up here by the way, is united. No matter who wins this damn thing, we're all going to stand together to defeat Donald Trump. Bernie Sanders: (02:55)I believe that the way we beat Trump is by having the largest voter turnout in the history of this country. And that is appealing to working class people, who have given up on the political process because they don't believe that anybody is hearing their pain, perceiving that pain, feeling their pain. And we got to bring young people into the political process. I am very proud that in Iowa we won the popular vote by 6,000 votes. What was most significant, most significant, is we increased voter turnout for young people under 29 by over 30%. If we do that nationally, we're going to defeat Donald Trump. George S.: (03:34)But Senator, let me follow up there and then we'll move on. But back in Iowa, the turn out this year was about the same as it was in 2016. Far below what it was in 2008 when President Obama won. Bernie Sanders: (03:46)That's true. And that's the disappointment and I think all of us probably could have done a better job in bringing out our supporters. But if there is a good spot, a good aspect about that campaign, is that young people came out in higher numbers than they did during Obama's historic 2008 campaign. And if that happens nationally, we're going to win and defeat Trump. George S.: (04:09)Before I move on to Mayor Buttigieg, let me just ask, is anyone else on the stage concerned about having a democratic socialist at the top of the Democratic ticket? Bernie Sanders: (04:20)I'm not. George S.: (04:21)Senator Klobuchar. Amy Klobuchar: (04:24)Bernie and I work together all the time. But I think we are not going to be able to out divide the divider in chief. And I think we need someone to head up this ticket that actually brings people with her, instead of shutting them out. And when I look at a state like New Hampshire that had a very, very close election last time in 2016, I see a state that, yes, has a high voter turnout, fired-up Democrats just like my state, which by the way, Bernie, when I led the ticket, had the highest voter turnout of any state in the country. But I add to that being able to bring in independents like you have in this state as well as moderate Republicans. Because there are so many of them out there that are looking for a candidate. And truthfully, Donald Trump's worst nightmare is a candidate that will bring people in from the middle. The people that are tired of the noise and the nonsense. And they are tired of the tweets and the mean stuff and they are looking for someone else. And I would submit that that is me. George S.: (05:29)Mr. Steyer, is socialism [inaudible 00:05:33] Tom Steyer: (05:34)I don't think there's any question, George, that after this week there's a real threat that Donald Trump can get reelected. And I don't think there's any question, but that the only way that we're going to beat him actually is the way that Bernie Sanders said, which is to get turnout across the spectrum of democratic voters. And that means we're going to have to appeal across the spectrum, moderates, progressives and every group. So unless you can appeal to the diverse parts of the Democratic Party, including specifically the black community, including specifically Latinos. If you can't do that, then we can't beat Donald Trump in November and we can't choose a candidate who can't do that. And I am doing that right now with 24% of blacks down in South Carolina, with high numbers in Nevada. That's what it's going to take is turnout, but turnout across the spectrum of democratic voters. Someone who can pull, as Amy said, everything together in every single way we're divided. George S.: (06:35)Andrew Yang and Senator Warren then Mayor Buttigieg. Andrew Yang: (06:39)First, let me say America, it's great to be back on the debate stage. Thank you. I'm so excited, I want to give every American $1,000 a month. George, the entire capitalism, socialism dichotomy is completely out of date and the fact is when people were talking about these economic models, they did not foresee technology getting stronger, more powerful, capable of doing the work of thousands of humans in the blink of an eye. We have record high corporate profits in this country right now, but people in New Hampshire know, what else are at record highs? Mental illness, stress, debt, substance abuse, overdoses, suicides. What we have to do is actually get the markets working to improve our family's way of life. Instead of following GDP and corporate profits off a cliff, we should be measuring our own health and wellness, life expectancy, mental health and freedom from substance abuse, clean air, and clean water, how our kids are doing. The way forward is a new human centered version of capitalism that actually uses the markets to improve our family's lives. George S.: (07:46)Senator Warren, you reportedly said back in 2018, "I'm a capitalist to my bones." Senator Sanders says, "I'm not." Is that your biggest difference with Senator Sanders? Elizabeth Warren: (07:57)Oh, Bernie and I have been friends for a long time and we have a lot of things in common and we can have a lot of things that we differ on. But there's fundamental question about how we bring our party together. We have to think about it in new ways. People across this country, whether they're Democrats, independents, or Republicans, understand that we've got a government right now that works great for those at the top. Works great for giant drug companies, just not for people trying to get a prescription filled. Works great for oil companies that want to drill everywhere, just not for the rest of us who see climate change bearing down upon us. When you see a government that works great for those who can hire armies of lobbyists and lawyers and make big campaign donations and it's not working so great for everyone else, that is corruption, pure and simple, and we need to call it out for what it is. Corruption, and that's what we can run on. We bring our party together. Elizabeth Warren: (08:54)It's an issue we can all agree on and fight for to end the corruption. We're the Democrats, we should be the party on the side of hardworking people and we can bring in independents and Republicans on that. They hate the corruption as well. My anti-corruption plan, good for Republicans and Democrats. That's not only how we bring our party together. That's how we're going to win in November. George S.: (09:21)Mayor Buttigieg, early in the campaign you said that the word socialism has lost its power, it's mostly lost its meaning. Do you believe that or worry it could be a potent weapon in a general election? Pete Buttigieg: (09:32)I'm not interested in the labels. I'm not interested in what Republicans are going to say. I'm interested in the style of politics that we need to put forward to actually, finally turn the page. In order to win, yes, but also in order to govern. This is a moment where the next president is going to face challenges the likes of which we hadn't even thought of a few years or decades ago. And politically, we're facing a fundamentally new problem with President Donald Trump. So the biggest risk we could take at a time like this would be to go up against that fundamentally new challenge by trying to fall back on the familiar. Or trying to unite this country at a moment when we need that kind of unification, when our nominee is dividing people with a politics that says, if you don't go all the way to the edge, it doesn't count. A politics that says, it's my way or the highway. George S.: (10:32)Are you talking about Senator Sanders? Pete Buttigieg: (10:32)Yes. Because we've got to bring as many people as we can into this process. Look, all of us have been saying that we can build the majority that it's going to take in order to win. But the process of actually proving it is now underway. And now it comes to New Hampshire, a state that thinks for itself, is not going to be told what to do by anyone and that has a very independent streak that is going to respond to those who are reaching out in a politics of addition and inclusion and belonging. Not one that beats people over the head and says they shouldn't even be on their side if we don't agree 100% of the time. George S.: (11:11)Senator Sanders, your response. Bernie Sanders: (11:13)Needless to say, I've never said that, but let me tell you what I do say. The way you bring people together is by presenting an agenda that works for the working people of this country, not for the billionaire class. The way you bring people together, Republicans, independents, Democrats, progressives, conservatives, you raise the minimum wage to 15 bucks an hour. The way you bring people together is to make it clear that we're not going to give tax breaks to billionaires and large corporations, they're going to start paying their fair share of taxes. That's what the American people want. And I'll tell you something else, the way you bring people together is by ending the international disgrace of this country being the only major nation on Earth not to guarantee healthcare to all people as a human right. And you bring people together by telling the pharmaceutical industry they're not going to charge us 10 times more for the same prescription drugs as the people in Canada that borders on New Hampshire. That's how you bring people together and you defeat Donald Trump. George S.: (12:27)Mayor Buttigieg, you just heard Senator Sanders make healthcare the center of his piece. Do you think his healthcare plan can bring people together? Pete Buttigieg: (12:34)I think there's a better way. It's true, the American people are ready. There's a historic majority right now, even broader than what was available to President Obama a decade ago. There is now a majority ready to act to make sure there is no such thing as an uninsured American and no such thing as an unaffordable prescription. Just so long as we don't command people to accept a public plan if they don't want to. That's the idea of Medicare for All Who Want It. My point is, what I am offering is campaigning for all of these things that America wants. Yes, higher wages, doubling the rate of unionization in this country, making corporations and the wealthy pay their fair share, delivering healthcare and college affordability. But also offering a way to do these game changing transformations that will actually galvanize and energize, not polarize the American people. That is not only what we need in order to win, it's what we need in order to govern and actually get these things done. George S.: (13:31)Vice President Biden, how do you unify the country? Joe Biden: (13:34)Look, Bernie says that you have to bring people together and we have to have Medicare for All. But Bernie says, and he says he wrote the damn thing, but he's unwilling to sell us with the damn thing's going to cost. The fact that we're in New Hampshire, very levelheaded group of people, look at the numbers. How much is it going to cost? Who's going to pay for it? It will cost more than the entire, the entire federal budget we spend now, more than entire budget. The idea middle class taxes aren't going to go up is just crazy. When they did it in Vermont, what happened? They doubled the state income tax and then had a 14% tax on withholding. And they finally did away with it. So how much is it going to cost? When you ask Bernie that, and I'll ask him again tonight sometime, and if you ask Bernie that, he says, "Go figure, I don't know, we'll find out." Joe Biden: (14:28)I think that was on CBS. He said, " We'll find out." Or something to that effect. Imagine you're going to unite the country walking into the Congress, "I got this bill. It's going to require Medicare for everybody. I can't tell you how much it's going to cost. We'll find out later and it's likely to be double whatever everything we spent in the federal government." Who do you think is going to get that passed? I busted my neck getting Obamacare passed, getting every Democratic vote. I know how hard it is. George S.: (14:53)Senator Sanders. Bernie Sanders: (14:56)Well, for a start, what the studies show, if we do what Joe wants, we'll be spending some $50 trillion on healthcare over the next 10 years. That's the status quo, Joe. That's what Health and Human Services says. [crosstalk 00:15:15] And what we have got to do Joe, and what we have got to do is understand, simple question, Joe, we are spending twice as much per capita on healthcare as do the people of any other country. Maybe it has something to do with the fact that the healthcare industry last year made $100 billion in profit. Maybe it has something to do with the fact that we are wasting $500 billion a year trying to administer thousands and thousands of different plans. What Medicare for All will do is save the average American substantial sums of money. Substantial, be much less expensive than your plan. And we will expand Medicare to include dental care, eyeglasses, hearing aides and home health care as well. George S.: (16:03)Vice President Biden, 30 second response, then Senator Klobuchar after that. Joe Biden: (16:07)30 second- George S.: (16:09)Yeah, 30 second- Joe Biden: (16:09)30 second response. My proposal gives you a choice. You're going to be covered. You have Medicare if you want it, you turn [inaudible 00:16:16] we're going to restore all the cuts that they made in Obamacare. We're going to reduce drug prices, reduce prescription prices, reduce copays, et cetera. And it cost a lot of money, it costs $750 billion over 10 years. I tell you how I'm going to pay for it. I'm going to raise the capital gains rates, you pay capital gains and what your tax rate is. That'll pay for it, that's $800 billion. But here's the deal, the fact is that it's going to cost Bernie's plan costs double, double what the taxpayers are paying for every single program we spend on in the United States of America. George S.: (16:49)Senator Klobuchar. Amy Klobuchar: (16:50)I keep listening to this same debate, and it is not real. It is not real, Bernie, because two thirds of the Democrats in the Senate are not on your bill and because it would kick 149 million Americans off their current health insurance in four years. And let me say what else, Elizabeth wants to do it in two years. And Pete, while you have a different plan now you sent out a tweet just a few years ago that said, henceforth, forewith, indubitably, affirmatively, you are for Medicare for All for the ages. And so I would like to point out that what leadership is about is taking a position, looking at things and sticking with them. I have long believed that the way that we expand healthcare to more people and bring down premiums is by building on the Affordable Care Act, with a nonprofit public option. That is the best way to do it. Amy Klobuchar: (17:42)And practically look at this, the Affordable Care Act is now nearly 10 points more popular than the President of United States. So why would we talk about blowing it up? What we need to do is build on it. Mental health care, addiction, longterm care, those are the things that would make it better for everyone. George S.: (18:00)Senator Warren and Mayor Buttigieg, you were both invoked. I want you each to respond and then go back to Senator Sanders. Elizabeth Warren: (18:05)So I think we need to think about healthcare a little differently and that is, 36 million Americans last year couldn't afford to have a prescription filled and that includes people with health insurance. I want everyone in here to think about what that means. They were worried enough or sick enough that they went to a doctor, a doctor looked at it and says that's serious enough to write a prescription. They walked out and then said, it's either that or groceries. It's that or pay them rent on time. We have got to change our healthcare system. The way [no audio or video 00:18:34] Help to the most people as quickly as we can. How about we start with what a president can do, I love saying this, all by herself. On day one, I will defend the Affordable Care Act and I will use march in orders to reduce the cost of commonly used prescription drugs like insulin and HIV, AIDS, drugs and EpiPens. Elizabeth Warren: (19:02)We can start making healthcare better for Americans from the beginning, but we have to agree to do that. We are the Democrats, we are on the side of expanding healthcare. When we come up against Donald Trump, the team that has been trying to take away healthcare from millions of people, what's going to matter most is we are the people on the side of those who need healthcare across this country. That's who Democrats are. George S.: (19:29)Mayor Buttigieg, I want you to respond to that, but also take on the argument at the beginning from the Vice President, you don't have the right experience to be president. Pete Buttigieg: (19:35)Sure. Well, first of all, just to be clear, the truth is that I have been consistent throughout in my position on delivering healthcare for every American. And as to experience, I just bring a different perspective. Look, I freely admit that if you're looking for the person with the most years of Washington establishment experience under their belt, you've got your candidate, and of course it's not me. The perspective I'm bringing is that of somebody whose life has been shaped by the decisions that are made in those big white buildings in Washington, D.C. Somebody who has guided a community written off as dying just a decade ago through historic transformation. Somebody who knows what it means to be sent to war on orders that come out of the Situation Room. We need a perspective right now that will finally allow us to leave the politics of the past in the past. Turn the page and bring change to Washington before it's too late. George S.: (20:27)Vice President Biden, there's his answer. Joe Biden: (20:29)The politics of the past I think were not all that bad. I wrote the Violence Against Women Act. I managed the $900 billion Recovery Act, which in fact put millions and millions of dollars into his city before he came and helped save his city. I was able to do it, I was able to pass the chemical weapons ban, arms control. And I was the first major leader holding public office to call for same sex marriage. So I don't know what about the past of Barack Obama and Joe Biden was so bad. What happened? What is it that he wants to do away with? We were just beginning. Joe Biden: (21:03) Happened, what is it that he wants to do away with? We were just beginning. It was just the beginning of what will be the future of moving this country beyond where it is now in significant ways, and there's ways to do that, and one of the ways to do that is to make sure you have someone who knows how to get things done, and can lead the free world at the same time. George S.: (21:18)Mayor Buttigieg respond, and then Senator Sanders. Pete Buttigieg: (21:23)Those achievements were phenomenally important, because they met the moment, but now we have to meet this moment. And this moment is different. The next president is going to face challenges from global health security, like what we're seeing coming out of China, to cybersecurity, and election security challenges that were barely thought of a few years ago. And here at home, we're seeing things like gig work, transform what it means to be a worker in America, in ways that were barely conceived of not that long ago. We cannot solve the problems before us by looking back. We have to be ready to turn the page, and change our politics before it's too late. And I'm seeing everywhere I go, not just fellow Democrats, but a striking number of independents, and, what I like to call future former Republicans ready to join in that historic American majority to turn the page. George S.: (22:15)Senator Klobuchar. Amy Klobuchar: (22:17)I am listening to this about meeting the moment, and my first thought is, I'm a fresh face up here for a presidential debate, and I figure, Pete, that 59, my age, is the new 38 up here. The second thing I think about is this, and that is- Bernie Sanders: (22:37)70 is the new 50. Amy Klobuchar: (22:37)Okay, there you go. Meeting the moment, meeting the moment, we had a moment the last few weeks, mayor, and that moment was these impeachment hearings. And there was a lot of courage that you saw from only a few people. There was courage from Doug Jones, our friend of Alabama, who took that tough vote. There was courage from Mitt Romney, who took it very, very difficult vote. There was courage, as I read today, about Lieutenant Colonel Vindman being escorted out of the White House, what he did took courage. But what you said, Pete, as you were campaigning through Iowa, as three of us were jurors in that impeachment hearing, you said it was exhausting to watch, and that you wanted to turn the channel and watch cartoons. Amy Klobuchar: (23:24)It is easy to go after Washington, because that's a popular thing to do. It is much harder, as I see Senator Shaheen in the front row, such a leader, it is much harder to lead, and much harder to take those difficult positions. Because I think this going after every single thing that people do, because it's popular to say, and makes you look like a cool newcomer. I just, I don't think that's what people want right now. We have a newcomer in the White House, and look where it got us. I think having some experience is a good thing. Bernie Sanders: (23:56)George, George, can I George S.: (23:56)Senator Sanders, then Mayor Buttigieg. Andrew Yang: (23:57)George, can I say Bernie Sanders: (24:01)Look, at the end of the day, we got to ask ourselves a very simple question, whether it's healthcare in fact, or anything else. Why are we the only major country on earth that doesn't guarantee healthcare to all people? Pay the highest prices in the world for prescription drugs? Have 87 million people uninsured or under-insured? 30,000 die because they don't get to a doctor on time, and 500,000 people going bankrupt, for what reason? Because they have cancer or heart disease, or Alzheimer's. We got to ask that question, why is it why? Why have we been talking about healthcare in this country for a hundred years, and here is the answer. If you want real change in healthcare, at the end of the day, you're going to have to take on the insurance companies, and tell them the function of healthcare is healthcare for all, not huge profits for the insurance companies. You're going to have to take on the drug companies, and their corruption, and their price fixing, and tell them, "Sorry, we're not going to pay 10 times more for prescription drugs, than do the people of other country." But at the end of the day, there's no way around it. You may want to nibble around the edges, but ultimately, you need to rally the American people to tell the drug companies, to tell Wall Street, to tell the insurance companies, to tell the fossil fuel industry this country belongs to all of us, not a handful of special interests. George S.: (25:28)Mayor Buttigieg, wrap this up, and then- Tom Steyer: (25:31)I have heard this conversation on this debate stage from these people now every single debate, and they're all right, everybody on this stage is better on economic justice and healthcare than anybody in the Republican party, and a million times better than Donald Trump. That is not the question in front of us today. The question in front of us today is, how are we going to beat Donald Trump? You were in the Clinton campaign in 1992, and the mantra was, "It's the economy, stupid." Well, if you look at what Mr. Trump is saying, he's saying those words, "It's the economy, stupid." I trust every one of these people a million times more, but we're going to have to take Mr. Trump down on the economy, because if you listen to him, he's crowing about it every single day, and he's going to beat us unless we can take him down on the economy, stupid. And that's the issue here. It is not about who has the best healthcare plan. All the healthcare plans are better, a million times better. Tom Steyer: (26:24)The question is, who can go toe to toe with Mr. Trump? Who can take down Mr. Trump, because he's the real threat to the country? And let me say, you have to have experience to take him down. This is not a question of he's a nice guy who's going to listen. We need people with experience. That's why I'm worried about Mayor Pete. You need to be able to go toe to toe with this guy, and take him down on the debate stage, or we're going to lose. And that's actually the issue in front of democratic voters. I have heard this debate so many darn times, and I love all these people, and they're all right. If we win, we can get the right thing, Bernie. I am with you. If we win, we can get the right thing, Pete, and Amy, but we got to win, or we are in deep trouble, and we keep not talking about the facts. George S.: (27:06)Mayor Pete. Pete Buttigieg: (27:17)Here's how we're going to win. We're going to force this president to stand on that debate stage, next to somebody who actually lives in a middle class neighborhood, in the industrial Midwest, in the exact kind of community that he pretends to speak for, but turns his back on. We're going to put up somebody who's not afraid to call out things like his disgraceful behavior at the national prayer breakfast, and remind Americans that God does not belong to a political party. We're going to win by having somebody up there who can call him to account for his refusal to serve when it was his turn, and remind him what serving this country is really about. If we want to beat this president, we've got to be ready to move on from the playbook that we have relied on in the past, and unify this country around a new and better vision. That's how we're going to win. And when I talk about exhaustion, this is important, because I got to tell you, the American people, from outside of Washington, we feel a sense of exhaustion watching the division, and the dysfunction there. Pete Buttigieg: (28:21)And that is not to take anything away from the very good work that you and our other democratic members of Congress, and the Senate are doing. It's not. But, the reason I raise that sense of exhaustion is I see it. I see that temptation to walk away from it all among so many people that I've spoken to in communities from Claremont to Manchester, and in the other states that we're in. And the important thing for the American people to remember, is this is 2020, it's an election year. And if the Senate was the jury before, you are the jury now. The American people are the jury that will have the final verdict on this president, and on the senators in the GOP who protected him. Andrew Yang: (28:58)Pete, fundamentally, you are missing the lesson of Donald Trump's victory. Donald Trump is not the cause of all of our problems, and we're making a mistake when we act like he is. Pete Buttigieg: (29:08)That's right. Andrew Yang: (29:11)He is a symptom of a disease that has been building up in our communities for years, and decades. And it is our job to get to the harder work of actually curing the disease. Most Americans feel like the political parties have been playing you lose, I lose, you lose, I lose for years. And you know who's been losing this entire time? We have. Our communities have. Our communities way of life is disintegrating beneath our feet. That's why Iowa, traditional swing state, went to Trump by almost 10 points. That's why Ohio, a traditional swing state is now so red, that I'm told we're not even going to campaign there. Andrew Yang: (29:45)So, these communities are seeing their way of life get blasted into smithereens. We've automated away four million manufacturing jobs, and counting. We're closing 30% of New Hampshire stores and malls, and Amazon, the force behind that, is literally paying zero in taxes. These are the changes that Americans are seeing and feeling around us every day, and if we get done the hard work of curing those problems, we will not just defeat Donald Trump in the fall, but we'll actually be able to move our communities forward. George S.: (30:12)I know we're going to hear a lot more on this, but we're going to move on. Speaker 1: (30:15)Thank you George. Good evening candidates. We come to you, of course, just 48 hours after the acquittal of President Trump. A process that has certainly crystallized the divide in our country. Senator Warren, want to start with you. You have said that on day one of your presidency, one of your first orders of business will be to order your justice department to launch new investigations into the Trump Administration. After a grueling impeachment, and what is likely to be a polarizing election, is investigating President Trump the best way to try to unify the country? Elizabeth Warren: (30:46)Look, I think no one is above the law, and that includes the President of the United States. We watched on Wednesday as Republicans, all but one locked arms to protect him from impeachment, but we need to reestablish the rule of law in this country. I believe in an independent commission, in our justice department that investigates crimes committed by our own government. It is an important part of accountability. It is an important part for every administration, that we hold ourselves accountable to the American people. Look, people around this country are losing faith in our government. They're losing faith that government works for them. They see a government that just works great if you're rich. It works great if you're a lobbyist. It works great if you're a corporate executive, but they see themselves and their children with less and less and less, and we could do something about it. Elizabeth Warren: (31:50)It's not enough simply to talk about the future. We have to be willing to stand up to those who now control our government, and make that government instead work for us. We can do child care in this country for every baby. We can invest in our public schools. We can cancel student loan debt for 43 million Americans, but only if we are willing to take control of our government away from the giant corporations and billionaires, return it to the people. This is about our government. This is about our democracy. This is about our future. Speaker 1: (32:29)Mr. Yang, you said that the notion of a leader quote, throwing the president before them in jail is not the way things are done here in the United States. It would make it quote, very hard for any party to govern sustainably moving forward. Does that mean that any alleged misconduct by the president or his administration should not be investigated? Andrew Yang: (32:49)There are of course limits, and you have to see what the facts are on the ground after you assume office, but the fact is, if you look around the world, the countries that have thrown past presidents into jail, have generally been developing countries, and unfortunately that's a pattern that once you establish, is very, very hard to break. What's a more American tradition? We move the country forward. We don't focus on the mistakes of the leaders that are leaving office. Most Americans do not care about what a particular individual did, so much as they care about their family's wellbeing, their community, their town. That's where Americans focus wants. They want the American president. They want the present. Of course, the American president, sorry about that. They want the president to be focused on that, and that's where our attention should be. We should not fall into a pattern that has been disastrous in other countries. Speaker 1: (33:36)Senator Sanders. Bernie Sanders: (33:40)Along with Elizabeth and Amy, we sat for two weeks listening to the impeachment process, and here's what I think the horror and the danger of what happened was not only the acquittal of Trump, who in fact committed impeachable offenses, and obstructed Congress. It is the precedent that it set. The precedent that it set. And what that precedent is about now is in the future, you're going to have presidents who say, "Hey, governor, you want highway money? You better support me, or you're not going to get it." Because I am the president, I can do anything I want. Bernie Sanders: (34:20)Hey, Congress, you want to investigate me? Don't be ridiculous. Who cares about the Congress? Who cares about the separation of powers? Who cares about the constitution of the president? I'm the President of the United States. I have all of the power, and I'm able to intimidate members of my own party. The saddest aspect of this whole thing, is you have Republicans in the Senate who knew better. They knew that Donald Trump is a crook. They knew that Donald Trump is a cheat, but they didn't have the guts, with the exception of Romney to vote against him. That is a sad day. Speaker 1: (34:54)Mr. Steyer. Tom Steyer: (34:58)So, I did start the Need to Impeach movement in October of 2017. And my father was one of the people who prosecuted the Nazi war criminals after World War II. And that's part of the reason I started it. Because when you see something really wrong in the United States, you're supposed to stand up against it, and fight against it. And that's what I was doing. But he's been, the Republicans have rolled over, they've had a sham trial, they've refused to have witnesses. They've covered up the truth for the American people. And it doesn't matter anymore that he's a crook, and he's always been a crook, and he always will be a crook. Right now, what we have to do is we have to beat him in November, and we have to beat him because he's incompetent, and bad for the American people. And that's the case we have to make now. Tom Steyer: (35:45)Is he a crook? I knew that two years ago. Is he going to be more of a crook, now that he believes he can get away with anything? Of course he is. But the job of the people on this stage is to beat him in November, and that's going to be based on what we can deliver for the American people. The fact that he's incompetent as a president, his economy isn't delivering for working people. The jobs don't pay enough for people to live on. We've got to take him down on the economy, and get them out of the White House as soon as possible. Speaker 1: (36:15)Thank you Mr. Steyer. Impeachment is of course over. But Republicans in Congress have already started investigating vice president Biden's son, Hunter. Mayor Buttigieg, do you think that there's a danger for the democratic party to nominate a candidate who is still under the threat of investigation? Pete Buttigieg: (36:30)No, and we're not going to let them change the subject. This is not about Hunter Biden, or vice president Biden, or any Biden. This is about an abuse of power by the president. The vice president and I and all of us are competing. But we've got to draw a line here. And to be the kind of president, to be the kind of human being who would seek to turn someone against his own son, who would seek to weaponize a son against his own father, is an unbelievably dishonorable thing, that is just one more example of why we as a party have to be completely united in doing whatever it takes at the end of the day to make sure that this president does not get a second term. Speaker 1: (37:19)Vice president Biden. Joe Biden: (37:19)I thank my colleague for saying that. It is a diversion, but here's the deal. Whomever the nominee is, the president's going to make up lies about. He thinks he has free reign right now. One of the things that I think is really important is we have to be authentic with the American people about what we're going to do and how we're going to do it. And by the way, Colonel Vindman got thrown out of the White House, walked out. I think at the same time, he should have been pinning a medal on Vindman, and not on rush Limbaugh. And I think we should all stand and give Colonel Vindman a show of how much we supported him. Stand up and clap for Vindman. Get up there. Who we are. That's who we are. We are not what Trump is. Speaker 1: (38:11)Thank you Vice President Biden. The Democratic party's last presidential nominee, Hillary Clinton has criticized Senator Bernie Sanders track record in the senate. Bernie Sanders: (38:23)I wasn't able to hear that question. Speaker 1: (38:24)Okay sure. The democratic party's last presidential nominee, Hillary Clinton has criticized Senator Bernie Sanders record in the senate, saying, "Nobody likes him. Nobody wants to work with him. He got nothing done." Senator Klobuchar, you served with Senator Sanders in the Senate. Is he going to be able to get the support? Not if you like him, but is he going to be able to get the support that he needs from Republicans? Amy Klobuchar: (38:49)I like Bernie just fine. We actually have worked together on a number of things, including pharmaceuticals. We actually had a vote late at night one time, Klobuchar/ Sanders amendment to bring in less- Bernie Sanders: (39:00)I thought it was Sanders/Klobuchar? Amy Klobuchar: (39:03)Nope, nope, nope, it was not, it was not. To bring in less expensive drugs from other countries, since in this great state of New Hampshire, like in Minnesota and Vermont, we can see Canada from our porch. And we ended up getting I think 14 Republican votes. And they might not have noticed what was happening late at night, but we got those. And I think that it is just an example of what we need to do here, because I've been listening to this discussion. I agree with my colleagues, we must unite, but the way that we unite is by having an optimistic economic agenda for America. That is what we must do, and that means taking on a president, if you want to talk about being tough enough to take him on. Amy Klobuchar: (39:46)Taking on a president that literally went down to Mar-a-Lago after he signed that Republican tax bill, and looked at all his friends and said, "You just got a lot richer." That is exhibit A for those carpenters in Pennsylvania, and those dairy farmers in Wisconsin, and those dock workers that I met with in Michigan. That is an exhibit A, and we have to be able to make the case to the working people of this country, some of whom voted for Donald Trump, that we have something better to offer. That we are going to take those incredibly regressive parts of that tax bill, and put that money into their childcare, into their healththere. Speaker 1: (40:25)Senator, just a quick yes or no. Do you think that Senator Sanders will be able to get Republican support in order to pass his bills? Amy Klobuchar: (40:32)That, I don't know. I know we did on that bill, but the point is, I think we're better off with someone that has the receipts. Someone that has actually won big time with Republicans and independents, and I'm the only one up on this stage, you can check it out, that has consistently won in red congressional districts. Not once, not twice, but three times. And when I did this, I didn't just do it for me. I led a ticket. I've flipped the state house every single time, because I have a way of working with people, that I think should be valued here as we look at these candidates, and it's one of the reasons that I got the New York Times endorsement, along with Elizabeth, and that I got the endorsements of the three major papers here in New Hampshire, which is the Union Leader, the Seacoast papers, and the Keene Sentinel. I think that matters. Read those editorials, and you will get a sense of what I'm about. Speaker 1: (41:22)Thank you Senator. Senator Sanders. Bernie Sanders: (41:27)I must confess, I don't get too many newspaper editorial support. Must confess that. Amy Klobuchar: (41:32)Well, you the Conway endorsement. Bernie Sanders: (41:34)I did. We're very proud of that. Amy Klobuchar: (41:36)There we go. Bernie Sanders: (41:37)But, let me just say this. I think the question started off with Secretary Clinton's critique. I think, quite honestly, as we face one of the great political crises facing America, our job is to look forward and not back to 2016. And I hope that Secretary Clinton and all of us can come together, and move in that direction. Now, second of all, in terms of Republicans, let me say Bernie Sanders: (42:03)-in that direction. Now, second of all, in terms of Republicans, let me say that in my own great state of Vermont, if my memory is correct, Amy, I got 25% of the Republican vote. And in fact, there were periods when I was in the House of Representatives, a number of years where I passed more amendments on the floor of the House in a bipartisan way than any other member of the House and that is when you bring people together on an issue. There are many conservative Republicans, for example, who are concerned about civil liberties, at least they used to be concerned about civil liberties. There are Republicans, as you know, who are concerned about the high cost of prescription drugs. There are ways that we can work with Republicans on issues where we have a common basis. Lindsey: (42:57)Thank you, Senator. Bernie Sanders: (42:57)Let's do that. Lindsey: (42:57)David. David Muir: (42:59)Lindsey, thank you. Good evening, all. I want to turn to America's role in the world and readiness to be commander-in-chief on day one. Just this week, you saw it, during the State of the Union, President Trump offered an indication of what he'll tout on the campaign trail. He celebrated the US air strike that killed top Iranian general, Qasem Soleimani saying, "Soleimani was the Iranian regime's most ruthless butcher, a monster who murdered or wounded thousands of American service members in Iraq." David Muir: (43:24)Mayor Buttigieg, you're the only veteran standing on this stage and while there is still debate about whether or not there was an imminent threat, there is no debate about whether or not Soleimani was a bad actor who was responsible for the deaths of many Americans. Given what you know about Soleimani, if your national security team came to you with an opportunity to strike, would Soleimani have been dead or would he still be alive under your presidency? Pete Buttigieg: (43:45)In the situation that we saw with President Trump's decision, there is no evidence that that made our country safer. Look, I feel very strongly about the campaign of murder and mayhem that General Soleimani and his units have perpetrated. It's also the case that if we learned nothing else from the war in Iraq, it's that taking out a bad guy is not a good idea if you do not know what you were doing. This president has moved us this much closer to the brink of war, but it didn't start with the Soleimani strike. It started with withdrawing us from the Iran nuclear deal that his own administration certified was working. And it's time for us to recognize that every time a step is taken that moves us to the brink of war, that has incredibly serious consequences for those who serve. Pete Buttigieg: (44:38)By chance, just because I was traveling for the campaign, not long ago, I ran into somebody that I hadn't seen since we were both serving, hadn't seen since she was injured in an insider attack. And I saw her coming down the concourse in the airport wearing a Wounded Warrior Project tee shirt that said, "Some assembly required." And when I asked her how she was doing, she up her knee and tapped on the part of her leg that they couldn't save, tapped on the prosthetic and said the Navy had fixed her up just fine and then let me know that she was looking forward to an upcoming deployment. Pete Buttigieg: (45:11)The people in our uniform will do whatever the United States requires of them. What they deserve in return is a president who will actually read the intelligence, pay attention to the international security situation, consult with our allies, keep US politics out of it, and never commit our troops to a situation where they would have to go into harm's way if there is an alternative. David Muir: (45:35)Mayor Buttigieg, let me just press further on this though, because president Trump has signal in a general election campaign, he will celebrate his willingness to order that strike. I'm asking if your national security team came to you and presented you with the opportunity, would you take the strike? Pete Buttigieg: (45:52)It depends on the circumstances. It depends if there was an alternative and it depends what the different effects would be. That's my point. This is not an episode of 24. This is a situation that requires that you actually evaluate the entire intelligence picture. This president has insulted the intelligence community, but they put their lives on the line to gather the information that will help a decision maker evaluate whether or not something like that is justified. And I don't think he even reads it. Pete Buttigieg: (46:20)And here we have a situation where the world, that one of the most volatile places in the world has just become more dangerous at the hands of a president who has no regard for the military, not only punishing a war hero today with what he did to Colonel Vindman, but pardoning war criminals in a way that undermines the entire sense of good order and discipline and military honor. We deserve a better commander-in-chief. David Muir: (46:44)Mayor Buttigieg, thank you. I do want to take this to Vice President Biden next because we know that the Obama Administration was aware of the threat that Soleimani posed, so was the Bush Administration before it. I'm asking tonight as commander-in-chief though, would you have ordered the strike? Joe Biden: (46:59)No. And the reason I wouldn't have ordered the strike, there is no evidence yet of imminent threat that was going to come from him. Look what happened, his America First policies made America alone. You cannot think of a time, David, and as long as you've been alive when NATO has said to the United States of America and to Iran, made a moral equivalence and said, both of you stand down. We are alone now, alone in that region of the world, without friends, without support, without allies. Joe Biden: (47:31)And secondly, you saw what happened when that air raid, when those missiles were fired from Iran into Iraq at Al-Assad Airbase, 64 of our heroes were wounded. I don't know what I would've done if my son were still there. I would have been so damn angry. I don't know what I would've done. But here's what happened, they had received traumatic brain injury. What did the president say? He said, "headaches," "not bad," "Headaches, that's all they are." This guy doesn't deserve to be commander- in-chief for one more day. David Muir: (48:02)Mr. Vice President, thank you, Senator Sanders, you have called this, "assassinating a government official." You would not have ordered the strike. Bernie Sanders: (48:10)Right. Look, here is the danger, David, there are very bad leaders all over the world. Kim Jong-un in North Korea is probably responsible for the death of hundreds of thousands of his people threatening all of Asia with nuclear weapons. You got Mohammad Bin Salman in Saudi Arabia who is a terrible murderer, who murdered Khashoggi in cold blood and dismembered his body. You have Putin in Russia who has been involved in political assassinations of his enemies. You got Xi in China who has put a million Muslims into concentration camps. Bernie Sanders: (48:49)You cannot go around saying you're a bad guy, we're going to assassinate you, and then you're going to have, if that happens, you're opening the door to international anarchy that every government in the world will then be subjected to attacks and assassination. What we have got to do, which Trump does not understand, is strengthen the State Department and our diplomatic capabilities, not just the military. What we have got to do is bring countries around the world together with our power and our wealth and say, you know what, let us sit down and work out our differences through debate and discussion at the UN, not through more and more war and the expenditures of trillions of dollars and the loss of God knows how many lives. David Muir: (49:41)Senator Sanders, thank you. This does take me to Afghanistan and to America's longest war. Senator Warren, you recently said quote, "We have one general after another in Afghanistan who comes in and says, "We've just turned the corner,' and then what happens? It's all the same. Someone new comes in and says, "We've just turned the corner.' You said, "So many say it. We're going in circles." David Muir: (50:02)We were on the ground in Afghanistan and Iraq in recent months and the generals told us that the US needs some US presence on the ground, US special forces some presence to go after ISIS and the terrorists. If your commander-in-chief, would you listen to the generals or do they fall into the category of the generals you've mentioned before? Elizabeth Warren: (50:19)No. Look, I sit on the Senate Armed Services Committee, so I get the briefings from the generals on a regular basis. I've been to Afghanistan, to Iraq. I've been to Jordan. I've been throughout the region. I've been there with John McCain. I've been there with Lindsey Graham to ask the hard questions about what's happening, to ask our generals, to ask their generals to ask people who are on the ground. And the bottom line is, nobody sees a solution to this war. Nobody can describe what winning looks like. All they can describe is endless war. Elizabeth Warren: (50:52)And I realized there are people on this debate stage who are willing to say, yeah, we'll leave our troops there for five more years, for 10 more years. Lindsey Graham has said he's willing to leave troops for 100 more years. And yet, what has all these years of war brought us? Right now, the Afghan Government controls less than 60% of the land. People don't have faith in it. It's a corrupt government. The opium trade is higher than ever. Elizabeth Warren: (51:20)Look, we sent our troops in and they did their best. They were there for us, but we need to be there for them. And that means, not send our troops to do work that cannot be solved militarily. It is time to bring our combat troops home. It is time to stop this endless war in Afghanistan. David Muir: (51:41)Senator Warren, I want to press you on this. You just said, "combat troops." Elizabeth Warren: (51:45)Yes. David Muir: (51:45)So if the generals came to you and said, we need US Special Forces, some footprint in Iraq and Afghanistan, would you listen? Would you leave them? Elizabeth Warren: (51:53)So I want to hear the plan, not just a, we need it now, we need it for the next day, we need it for the six months. And I want to know where our allies are. We all have an interest in dealing with terrorism and controlling terrorism, but that means it can't just be the United States waging endless war. That does not make us safer. It does not make the region safer. It does not make the world safer. We should work with our allies in managing terrorism, but we need to end this war in Afghanistan. We cannot wait five more years, or 10 more years, or until we turn the corner 10 more times. We need to bring our combat troops home. David Muir: (52:34)Senator Warren, thank you. I want to take this to the Vice President because you have said of Senator Warren's comments before that the United States should get out of the Middle East. You have said, "I quite frankly was surprised that I have never heard anyone say with any serious background in foreign policy that we should pull all troops out of the Middle East." Is Senator Warren wrong on this? Joe Biden: (52:54)I'm not sure what she, if she wants to pull all troops out of the Middle East, but if she does want to put all troops out of the Middle East, we saw what happens when that happened. Joe Biden: (53:02)I helped put together a 61 nation group to take out ISIS by putting fewer than 5,000 forces along the Turkish border to see to it that they, and they lost 10,000, the Kurds, lost 10,000 lives. They defeated ISIS. They ended the caliphate and then the president on a whim dealing with a man I know very well, they've now, the guy running Turkey who is more of an autocrat now than a Democrat, and what happened? We pulled out and you saw what happened. You saw the end of the effort to be able to continue to contain, contain ISIS, number one. Joe Biden: (53:37)Number two, close your eye, everybody. Remember what you saw on television. You saw a woman standing up there holding up her baby, Kurd, saying, "Please don't leave us." And our military women and men standing at, going out in their [inaudible 00:53:49] Humvees with their heads down ashamed of what they did. It didn't take a lot of men or men and women to do what needed to be done. Joe Biden: (53:57)And with regard Afghanistan, now I can say it because it was made public, I was totally against the whole notion of no nation building in Afghanistan. The only thing we should be doing is dealing with terrorism in that region. I've been in every part of Afghanistan, not in combat like my friend has, but in helicopter and/or on a vehicle in every part of it as senator and vice president. Here's what I saw, there is no possibility of uniting that country, no possibility at all of making it a whole country. But it is possible to see to it that they're not able to launch more attacks from the region on the United States of America. That's a small footprint that we needed and I argued for that in the beginning. David Muir: (54:38)You mentioned Mayor Buttigieg. And I do want to take this to you next, mayor. Given your finish in Iowa, you've come under increasing scrutiny, attacks from opponents on experience. We've heard that theme even right here tonight. You have said on the Iraq War, for example. "I just don't believe there is any justification for that vote." You said, "It's the difference between tenure and judgment." That it's the judgment that matters, not the time in Washington. Vice President Biden, as you know, voted yes. As commander-in-chief, do you believe your judgment would be better than the vice president's? Pete Buttigieg: (55:07)I believe that I have the judgment to help us get through these situations where obviously the vice president made the wrong decision when it came to such an important moment in our foreign policy. And looking forward, we got to recognize just how much is going to be on the plate of the next president that is different in kind from what we have faced before. It's not just about dealing with the aftermath of the war in Iraq, it's about preventing a war with Iran. And not only do we have to undertake the military and counter terrorism activities that we've been doing throughout, the next president is going to have to restore the credibility of this country among our allies and among the international community. Pete Buttigieg: (55:48)At a moment when we are facing fundamentally different challenges from asymmetric warfare to cybersecurity threats, in President Trump's imagination of a national security strategy is a big wall and a moat full of alligators. It's a 17th century approach to keeping a place safe. What we have to do is be ready for the future and that means insisting not only on shoring up our relationships, but defining a strategy to keep the American people safe from fundamentally new challenges. David Muir: (56:16)Mr. Vice President, I'll let you respond to his argument on judgment. Joe Biden: (56:21)I made a mistake and I said it 14 years ago. I trusted George Bush to keep his word. He said he was not going to go into Iraq. He said he was only using this to unite the United Nations to insist we get inspectors in to see what Saddam was doing. When we got elected, the president turned to me with the entire security apparatus and said, "Joe, I want you to organize getting 156,000 troops out of Iraq." I did that. I did that. Joe Biden: (56:46)The other thing I want to point out too is that NATO is in fact going to crumble if we don't beat Trump. NATO is in real trouble. We need NATO for more reasons than just physical security. We need NATO to make sure that we do not allow Russia to continue to have its influence in Eastern Europe in ways that it had before. It wasn't just to stop the Soviet Union from coming into the United States, coming into Europe. It was to make sure that we did not have a kleptocracy taking over that part of the world, to unite Europe in our behalf. I know how to deal with them. I know every one of these world leaders by their first names. They call me. I talked to them and I believe I can get it done. David Muir: (57:22)Mr. Vice President, thank you. Mr. Steyer, I do want to bring you in on this because I noticed in the last 24 hours you have an attack ad running here in New Hampshire with images of Mayor Buttigieg and you say over those images "an untested newcomer." But I wanted to ask you tonight on this readiness to be commander-in-chief, you share the stage with a veteran from Afghanistan, a vice president who was in the Situation Room. What makes you most qualified of all candidates on this stage to be commander-in-chief? Tom Steyer: (57:47)Well, let me say this, I agree with Pete Buttigieg that it's about judgment not tenure. What we're hearing here is a very long dissertation about exactly how America should be the world's policemen. And what we've actually seen in the Middle East is that Barack Obama used diplomacy to get Iran to give up its nuclear ambitions in return for our releasing economic sanctions along with our partners around the world. So when we're talking about our role in the world and commander-in-chief, we have abandoned a diplomacy. We don't have a strategy and we don't have allies. Tom Steyer: (58:26)And actually this view of the world, that our response should be military is driven by our gigantic military complex and ignores the biggest problem that we face internationally in the world, which is climate change. And it cannot be solved with guns and tanks and planes. It can only be solved with diplomacy and allies and interaction with other countries. So in fact, what we are listening to right here is a discussion of 20 years of failed military action and how we should continue it and how we should continue spending $700 billion dollars a year on defense when we spend $70 billion dollars a year at the federal level on education. David Muir: (59:12)Mr. Steyer [crosstalk 00:17:13]. Tom Steyer: (59:17)Let's talk about judgment here. [crosstalk 00:59:16]. David Muir: (59:20)Mr. Vice President, I'll give you 30 seconds to respond. Joe Biden: (59:22)That's not what I said, I was part of the reason putting that deal together with Iran. I was there. I was involved in that. I was also part of the deal putting together the Paris Climate Accord. I brought in the Chinese. I was part of that. I've been part of every major initiative we've had relative to diplomacy. I have not argued for the placement of major numbers of US combat troops. I have said, along with the President of the United States, Barack Obama as his partner, I have said, we have to strengthen NATO to make it clear that we keep our commitments when we make them. Like we don't keep our commitments to the Kurds. We must keep our commitments when we make them. Otherwise, we have no power whatsoever. Joe Biden: (01:00:04)And it's not about making sure we're policeman of the world. The only way not to become the policeman of the world is to have allies who will join us in dealing with failed States and terrorism. And it has to be done jointly by a whole lot of people and it doesn't require large number of US troops, and I've never said that. Tom Steyer: (01:00:21)Okay, can I respond to that, David? David Muir: (01:00:21)Senator Sanders, Senator Sanders, please. Tom Steyer: (01:00:23)Can I respond to [crosstalk 01:00:22]. Bernie Sanders: (01:00:24)Let me say this if I might, like Joe and others, I also heard the arguments in terms of the war in Iraq from Bush, from Cheney, from John Bolton, from the whole administration. I listened very carefully and I concluded that they were lying through their teeth. And I not only voted against that war, but I help lead the opposition. And it saddens me so much. If you hear what I said, it's on YouTube, my fears about all the destabilization that would take place by the US invading Iraq. It's sad to me that, that is what happened. Bernie Sanders: (01:01:04)But let me just pick up on a point that Tom made, which is absolutely right. Trump wants to build a wall around America. The problem is if we are going to deal with issues like climate change, not only do we in America have to take on the greed of the fossil fuel industry, we have to lead the entire world. This is not an American issue. It's a global issue. We got to bring China and Russia and Brazil and Pakistan and India and every major country on earth into the fight against climate change. Bernie Sanders: (01:01:38)And here is my dream, maybe it's a radical dream, but maybe just may be given the crisis of climate change, the world can understand that instead of spending $1.8 trillion dollars a year collectively on weapons of destruction designed to kill each other, maybe we pool our resources and fight our common enemy, which is climate change. David Muir: (01:02:02)[crosstalk 00:20:02]. Senator Sanders, thank you. George, back to you. George S.: (01:02:06)We have much more today coming up, but we have got to take a break. We'll be right back. George S.: (04:24)Welcome back of Saint Anselm College here in New Hampshire and we are here every four years, thanks to our amazing Manchester partner WMUR. And now anchor Monica Hernandez and political director Adam Section are joining us with questions on the minds of New Hampshire voters. Monica Hernandez: (04:39)Thank you George. It's an honor to be here in our community. We know Granite Staters are engaged and we know there are issues that strike especially close to home here. New Hampshire has one of the highest rates of deadly overdoses in the country. In some cases, police and paramedics tell us that they are saving the same lives again and again, sometimes more than once in a single day. It's a healthcare issue, but it's also so much more. Mayor Buttigieg, you have described yourself as a moderate, but one of your policies at least goes further than some on the stage with you are willing to go. You have called for the decriminalization of all drugs. Does that include heroin, meth, and cocaine, some of the drugs that have contributed to this crisis? Pete Buttigieg: (05:19)No. What I've called for is that incarceration should no longer be the response to drug possession. Monica Hernandez: (05:34)With all due respect Mayor Buttigieg, on your website it says that you called for decriminalization of all drugs. Pete Buttigieg: (05:35)Again, what I'm calling for is that we end the use of incarceration as a response. This does not mean that it will be lawful to produce or distribute those kinds of harmful drugs, but also as we know from the opioid crisis, some of this has been driven by companies that were acting irresponsibly with substances that were lawful. It's why in South Bend we sued those companies to hold them accountable. We've got to make sure that there is accountability for those who suppressed evidence about the addictiveness of those substances. Even while we're also coming to recognize that these kinds of addiction are a medical issue, not a moral failure on the part of somebody battling that addiction. Pete Buttigieg: (06:17)That's why medication assisted treatment is so important. And those people who are being revived, and our own EMTs in my city had been so frustrated by the experience of reviving somebody, but then they have nowhere to go. Sometimes you get brought back with a dose of Narcan, but then your life depends on whether in the days that follow you make it until somebody can actually see you, because we have such a shortage of mental health and addiction providers in this country. We must act to change that and save lives when we do. Monica Hernandez: (06:47)I want to bring this question now to Mr. Yang. You've said you would decriminalize opioids, but you've also said that you would require all overdose patients to go to mandatory treatment centers for three days. Right now in New Hampshire there aren't enough beds in treatment centers and across the country. How would you make sure treatment is available for all overdose patients and what would you do to fill the gap in the meantime? Andrew Yang: (07:13)That's what we have to change, Monica. I've heard heartbreaking stories from families here in New Hampshire that have been destroyed, torn apart by the opiod epidemic and you have to look at the companies that profited to the tune of tens of billions of dollars in profits of essentially blood money. As President, we will take back those profits and put them to work right here in New Hampshire so that if you are seeking treatment, you have resources to be able to pursue it. Andrew Yang: (07:37)This is not a money problem fundamentally this is a human problem, but money cannot be the obstacle. This is something that happened on the government's watch. The government allowed this opiod epidemic to spread throughout our communities and we have to do everything in our power to actually make sure that if you are seeking treatment, you know you're not going to be sent to jail. We have safe injection and safe consumption sites for you. Andrew Yang: (08:00)If you have a family member who's struggling, you can refer them and know that they're not going to have criminal penalties as a result. There are so much about this that's endemic to what's happened throughout the country in terms of companies running amok, this hyper corporate capitalism where if money's on one side in this country and people are on the other side, the money is winning. You can see it with the opiate epidemic. You can see it with the military industrial complex, the fossil fuel companies. This is what must change and that's where I'll lead as president. Monica Hernandez: (08:33)Senator Klobuchar, I want to take the question to you now. As a prosecutor, you embrace tough on crime policies, even with drug offenders. You've also spoken many times about your father's own addiction issues, his own alcoholism and his DUI arrests. If addiction is a disease, should people be arrested for it and as a prosecutor, do you regret sending people with substance abuse issues to jail? Amy Klobuchar: (08:56)I led one of the most successful drug courts in the country in Hennepin County, and I always would say and believed, and I think my record shows this, that we weren't a business. We didn't want to see repeat customers. And if you don't want to see repeat customers, the only answer is treatment. And maybe you're referring to some of the people who were dealing big time in drugs. Yes, I felt that we should prosecute those people, but when it comes to, when you asked Mr. Yang a question, and I think it, we owe it to the people of New Hampshire, had one of the biggest addiction rates in the countries and death rates when it comes to opioids, to explain how we will pay for the treatment and the bed. I've been very clear about this. Amy Klobuchar: (09:40)There's going to be a major settlement coming through, a federal settlement against all these opioid manufacturers. The evidence is overwhelming, including an email where one guy, a business guy, says to the other, "They're eating them like Doritos. Just keep pumping them out." We will get a conservative estimate, $40 billion in from that settlement, we can put a 2 cents per milligram tax on opiods that brings in another 40 billion. Then you can close a hedge fund loophole that brings in $18 billion. And just like every other policy I've proposed, and I think New Hampshire voters should care about this, I have showed how I'm going to pay for it. Because I think we have someone in the White House that has told over 15,000 lies. He makes all kinds of promises. The people of New Hampshire and the people of our country deserve better. I will get this done and it is personal for me. Adam Sexton: (10:32)Good evening candidates. New Hampshire is a battleground, not just for presidential contenders but also for top issues and that includes gun policy. Senator Sanders, for many voters in this Democratic primary, your allure is about consistency when it comes to progressive issues you've been on the right side of them for a long time. One exception is gun rights. In the '90s when you were in Congress, you voted against background checks. You also voted against a waiting period for purchase of a firearm. Can you explain why you opposed these things that you now support? Bernie Sanders: (11:01)I can Adam, and let me also say that in 1988 I probably lost a race for Congress, and we only have one Congress person in the whole state, because in 1988 I said that we should ban the sale and distribution of assault weapons in this country. That was 30 years ago. Furthermore, I am very proud that today I have a D- voting record from the NRA. And under my administration it will be the American people doing gun policy, not dictated by the NRA. Bernie Sanders: (11:38)But to answer your question, I come, like New Hampshire, from a very, very rural state. In Vermont until the last two years ago, we had virtually no gun control legislation at all and I represented that perspective. The world has changed. In Vermont and in New Hampshire and all over this country, people are sickened by the mass shootings that we have seen and the gun violence that we have seen. The world has changed and my views have changed, and my view is right now we need universal background checks, we end the gun show loophole, we end the so called straw man provision. We make certain that we end the sale and distribution of assault weapons in this country, and we go further. We go further, but at the bottom line is I will not be intimidated by the NRA. We're going to run the gun policy that the American people want. Adam Sexton: (12:34)Vice President Biden, you've taken a lot of heat in this primary, on these debate stages and from voters here in New Hampshire for your past positions. You've essentially asked them to look at the totality of your record and give you the benefit of the doubt. Does Senator Sanders deserve that same benefit of the doubt on guns? Joe Biden : (12:49)Here's the deal. The biggest mistake that Bernie made, that Senator Sanders made, he voted to give the gun manufacturers, the only major industry in America, a loophole that does not allow them to be sued for the carnage they are creating. First thing I'll do as President is work to get rid of that. It's going to be hard. Think of all the thousands and thousands of people who died. And I might add Bernie, while you were representing your constituency, an awful lot of people [inaudible 00:13:18] your gun state and they've come around. In fact, all those folks in California, New York, Pennsylvania, they're getting killed by the thousands during the same period. Joe Biden : (13:27)I come from a state that's a major gun owning stare. I introduced the first assault weapons ban. I in fact got it passed. I'm the only guy that beat the NRA twice. While I was pushing the Brady Background Bill to check background checks, Bernie voted five times against that when he was in the House. So look, the other thing is that we have to be held accountable for the things we did, I'm the guy that set up drug courts. I set them up. I wrote it into law and it never got funded. And also on opioids, I'm the guy who's already begun to make a down payment. In the Cures Act I put in $1 billion to fight opioid addiction. And lastly, my time is going to be up, surely. Here's the deal. Those Chief Executive Officer of drug companies, they should not only be fined, they should go to jail. Adam Sexton: (14:15)Senator Warren, we'd like to go over to you now. [inaudible 00:14:18] I want to ask you this question here though. Laws can do so much, if you could change one thing about America's gun culture, what would it be? Elizabeth Warren: (14:25)Look, we have a gun violence problem in America. It is about the mass shootings that we hear about in our schools and that frighten us, about it in theaters and in churches. It's also though about shootings that occur on sidewalks and in playgrounds, often in communities of color that are hit hardest, but there are no headlines over those. It's also about suicide and the increasing lethality of suicide because of the availability of guns. It is also about the increased chances that it's usually a woman will die of domestic violence if she is with a violent man and a gun is in the home. Elizabeth Warren: (15:07)We need to think of this problem not as one and done or three things and done. We need to think of it just like we did on auto safety. We just keep coming back. We treat it like the public health emergency that it is. But the question we should be asking ourselves is when America, across this country, including gun owners, agree in certain basic things, universal background checks, get assault weapons off the streets. Why can we not even get a vote in the United States Senate? Elizabeth Warren: (15:40)And the answer is 90%, think about this, more than 90% of Americans agree on this. We can't get a vote in the United States Senate because it is the gun industry that continues to call the shots. Until we attack the corruption in Washington, the influence of money on campaigns and lobbying, we're not going to be able to meet our promises. And one more, until we agree that we are willing to roll back to filibuster, the gun industry is going to continue to have a veto and we will never make the changes we make. We have to be willing to build a future that works, not for a gun industry, but that works for the rest of America and protects our children. Joe Biden : (16:24)We ought to be able to sue the gun industry. David Muir: (16:25)Thank you, candidates. We're going to go back to David up there [inaudible 00:16:26]. Adam and Monica, thank you and thanks to WMUR tonight. I want to turn to the Supreme Court, the balance on the court and the issues before the court right now. President Trump in just the last 24 hours saying we've appointed 191 federal judges, two Supreme Court Justices, keeping his campaign promise to shift the Court to the right with Neil Gorsuch and Brett Kavanaugh. David Muir: (16:46)The Affordable Care Act is at the court. Climate change is working its way to the court, and a major abortion case is on the docket this year. Vice President Biden, on the issue of abortion, in 2012 you said, "President Obama's two Supreme Court picks of them, there was no litmus test. We picked people who had an open mind, did not come with an agenda." And you've said before, "We both believed that we should not apply narrow litmus tests to appointees to the Supreme Court." Let me just ask, would you do it differently as President, Mr. Vice President? Would there be a litmus test on abortion? Joe Biden : (17:16)If you say the rest of what I said. I said that we're going to not appoint anyone who did not have a view that unenumerated rights existed in the Constitution. That's not a specific test. It's a generic test. And only way, the only reason women have the right to choose is because it's determined that there's unenumerated rights coming from the Ninth Amendment in the Constitution. That's what I said. And I was part of the reason why Elena Kagan, who worked for me, we got onto the Supreme Court. I was part of the reason why Ruth Bader Ginsburg is on the Court. I was part of the reason why Sotomayer is on the Court and she will swear me in. I presided, and I'm the reason why this right wasn't taken away a long time ago because I almost single handedly made sure that Robert Bork did not get on the Court because he did not think there should be enumerated rights [inaudible 00:18:04]. David Muir: (18:04)So let me just- Joe Biden : (18:05)Let's get that straight. David Muir: (18:05)Mr. Vice President, I am aware of what you said, which is why I'm asking would you do it differently now? Would there be a litmus test on abortion? Joe Biden : (18:12)Yes. Look, here's the deal. Litmus test on abortion relates to the fundamental value of the Constitution. A woman does have a right to choose. I would in fact, if they rule it to be unconstitutional, I will send to the United States Congress and it will pass, I believe, a bill that Excuse me, legislates Roe V. Wade adjusted by Casey. It's a woman's right to do that. Period. And if you call that a litmus test it's a litmus test, but what I was talking about in the past, so no one gets confused here, is if there is no If you read the Constitution very, very narrowly and say there are no unenumerated rights. If the doesn't say it in the Constitution that doesn't exist, you cannot have any of the things I care about, any of the things I care about as a progressive member of the United States Congress at the time, and as Vice President and as a member of society. David Muir: (19:04)Mr. Vice president, thank you. Senator Warren. Elizabeth Warren: (19:06)Look, I've lived in an America in which abortion was illegal and rich women still got abortions and that's what we have to remember about this. States are heading toward trying to ban abortion outright and the Supreme Court seems headed in exactly that direction as well. If we are going to protect the people of the United States of America and we are going to protect our rights to have dominion over our own bodies, then it's going to mean we can't simply rely on the courts. Three out of every four people in America believe right now that the rule of Roe versus Wade should be the law. That means we should be pushing for a Congressional solution as well. It is time to have a national law to protect the right of a woman's choice. David Muir: (19:57)Senator Warren, thank you. Senator Klobuchar, I do want to come to you. Should there be a litmus test? It's an active hall here tonight. I did want to come to you on this question. Amy Klobuchar: (20:10)Thank you. David Muir: (20:10)Should there be a litmus test on abortion? Amy Klobuchar: (20:12)I would only appoint judges that would respect precedent and one of those key precedents is Roe v. Wade. In addition, you have got to put it into law. Donald Trump, and I think it's really important to take it to him here, when he was running for election, and this is a case I will make on the debate stage against him, he actually said that he wanted to put women in jail. He then dialed it back and said, "No, I want to put doctors in jail." Is it a big surprise then we're seeing states like Alabama start enacting laws that would criminalize doctors who perform abortions. It's not. And that is why it's going to be really important when you look at the overwhelming public support for funding Planned Parenthood, for making sure women have access to contraception, to making sure that they have a right to choose, that we make this case strongly and loudly. David Muir: (21:06)Senator Klobuchar, thank you. Mayor Buttigieg, you have signaled that you'd be open to the idea of expanding the Court. Justice Ruth Bader Ginsburg suggested leaving the Court as it is, saying quote, "Nine seems to be a good number." And in fact she said if the number of justices is increased quote, "It would make the Court appear partisan. It would be one side saying, "When we're in power, we're going to enlarge the number of judges to have more people who will vote the way we want them to.'" Is Justice Ginsburg wrong? Pete Buttigieg: (21:32)Well, if all we did was change the number of justices than I agree with her that that could be the consequence. What I've called for is not only reforming the number of justices on the bench, but structural reform so that some of the justices are not appointed through a partisan process. We cannot allow the Supreme Court to continue to become one more political battlefield as we are seeing today. And the time has come for us to think bigger, not just reforming the makeup of the court as America, by the way, has done several times in our history. But also remember that the founders gave us the power to amend the Constitution for a reason and we shouldn't be afraid to use it. Pete Buttigieg: (22:13)It's not something you do lightly or quickly, but when it comes to something like Citizens United, which holds that corporations have the same political soul as people and that spending money to influence an election is the same thing as writing an op-ed to your local paper, we need a Constitutional amendment to clear that up and protect our democracy. David Muir: (22:33)Mayor Buttigieg, thank you. Vice President Biden, I do want to come to you on this. President Trump has said that the only reason Democrats want to expand the Court is they want to try and catch up. You have called any expansion of the court a bad idea, adding, "We will live to rue that day." Do you agree with President Trump on- Joe Biden : (22:50)I agree with Ruth Bader Ginsburg. That's who I agree with. And I agree the way you deal with Citizens United is pass a constitutional amendment I introduced 25 years ago saying that only public money can be spent in elections. Period. Not private money, not billionaires, not money from special interests. Period. That's the way to amend the Constitution to deal with that. In addition to that, if in fact Look, the Democrats stood up against the man I've revered, Franklin Delano Roosevelt, he wanted to expand the Court. But they were wise enough to understand that whoever then has the majority will have the ability to abuse it and it will lose its legitimacy and there are three equal branches of government. It says the President shell nominate, the Senate shall dispose, the Senate shall make that decision, not the president. He can nominate. Joe Biden : (23:37)That's why it's so important we must win back the United States Senate this time out. And that's why as you all look at it up here in New Hampshire and around the world, excuse me, around the country, you have to ask yourself, who is most likely to help get a Senator elected in North Carolina, Georgia? Who can win Florida, Pennsylvania, Minnesota? Who can do that? Because you got to be able to win those Well, you can. I agree. But here's the point. You've got to be able to, you've got to be able to not just win, you've got to bring along a United States Senate or this becomes moot. David Muir: (24:16)Senator Sanders [crosstalk 00:24:17]. Bernie Sanders: (24:18)Look, you asked the simple question, is there a litmus test for those of us up here? For me there is. I will never nominate any person to the Supreme Court or the federal courts in general who was not 100% pro Roe v. Wade. Number two, we have got a codify Roe v. Wade into legislation. Number three, we have to significantly expand funding for Planned Parenthood. David Muir: (24:52)Mr. Steyer, I want to bring you in on this because you have claimed that when it comes to the Supreme Court, you have said Republicans have been cheating. Tom Steyer: (24:59)Sure they've been cheating. Look, what we saw Mitch McConnell do, not just in the Supreme Court with Merrick Garland, but across the board with federal judges, was refuse to allow President Obama's picks to be considered. That's why Mr. Trump has appointed so many federal judges, because in fact the Republicans refused to allow President Obama to get his due, and honestly, we're sitting here talking about do you have a litmus test? We all have the litmus test. Everybody on this row feels exactly the same way about a woman's right to choose. Everybody on this row feels exactly the same way on gun control. Every single one in this row feels the same way. Tom Steyer: (25:38)There's something else going on. These Republicans are in control. They're stacking the Court for a generation with young right-wing radicals, and we've watched it happen and the question is what are we going to do about it? That's where we are in the United States, and the question is Actually Joe Biden's right. We have to go win a huge victory this year, and we're in trouble. And so the question is going to be, look at these people, who can pull together the Democratic Party? Tom Steyer: (26:05)And let me say this, we have not said one word tonight about race. Not one word. Are you kidding me? We have the most diverse party. We have a very diverse country. We have a very diverse party. The heart and soul of this party is diversity, black people, Latinos, AAPI people, Native Americans and white people. But for goodness sakes, pull it together. We're talking about something different. The question we have is how are we getting that diverse group of people to the polls? What are we saying? Everybody on this stage feels the same way about a woman's right to choose and economic justice. The question is how do we beat Trump? How do we take down these Republicans? And the answer is we've got to show we can take them down on growth, job creation, the economy. We send them packing and then we get all of this including beating the corporations. David Muir: (26:56)Mr Steyer, thank you. The night is still young. Many questions to come, and Linsey Davis is next. Linsey Davis: (27:01)I want to turn now to criminal justice. Mayor Buttigieg David Muir: (27:03)Linsey Davis is next. Linsey Davis: (27:03)I want to turn now to criminal justice. Mayor Buttigieg, under your leadership as mayor, a black resident in South Bend, Indiana was four times more likely to be arrested for marijuana possession than a white resident. Now, that racial disparity is higher than the rest of the state, in fact, it's higher than the rest of the nation, and that disparity increased in South Bend after you took office. Linsey Davis: (27:23)When talking about the problem on national terms, you've called it "evidence of systemic racism." You were mayor for eight years, so weren't you, in effect, the head of the system, and how do explain that increase in black arrests under your leadership? Pete Buttigieg: (27:37)Well, the reality is, on my watch, drug arrests in South Bend were lower than the national average, and specifically to marijuana, lower than in Indiana. But there is no question that systemic racism has penetrated to every level of our system, and my city was not immune. I took a lot of heat for discussing systemic racism with my own police department, but we've got to confront the fact that there is no escaping how this is part of all of our policies. Pete Buttigieg: (28:05)Earlier, we were talking about opioids, and thankfully, America has come to a better understanding about the fact that opioid addiction is best understood as a medical problem. But there were a lot of people, including a lot of African American activists in my community who have made the very good point, it's great that everybody's so enlightened about drug policy now when it comes to opioids, but where were you when it came to marijuana, where were you when it came to the crack epidemic in the 1990s? That is one of the reasons why I am calling for us as a country to take up those reforms that end incarceration as a response to possession and make sure that we legalize marijuana and when we do it, do it retroactively with expungements to correct the harm done in so many cases of incarceration, disproportionately of black and brown Americans where the incarceration did far more harm than the offense it was intended to deal with. Linsey Davis: (29:00)Right, let me go back to the original question though. How do you explain the increase in black arrests in South Bend under your leadership for marijuana possession? Pete Buttigieg: (29:05)And again, the overall rate was lower than the national rate. Linsey Davis: (29:09)No, there was an increase. The year before you were in office, it was lower. Once you became in office in 2012, that number went up. In 2018, the last number year that we have record for, that number was still up. Pete Buttigieg: (29:22)And one of the strategies that our community adopted was to target, when there were cases where there was gun violence and gang violence, which was slaughtering so many in our community, burying teenagers, disproportionately black teenagers, we adopted a strategy that said that drug enforcement would be targeted in cases where there was a connection to the most violent group or gang connected to a murder. Pete Buttigieg: (29:49)These things are all connected, but that's the point. So are all of the things that need to change in order for us to prevent violence and remove the effects of systemic racism, not just from criminal justice, but from our economy, from health, from housing, and from our democracy itself. Linsey Davis: (30:05)Senator Warren, is that a substantial answer from Mayor Buttigieg? Elizabeth Warren: (30:08)No. You have to own up to the fact, and it's important to own up to the facts about how race has totally permeated our criminal justice system. For the exact same crimes, study after study now shows that African Americans are more likely than whites to be detained, to be arrested, to be taken to trial, to be wrongfully convicted, and receive harsher sentences. We need to rework our criminal justice system, from the very front end on what we make illegal all the way through the system, and how we help people come back into the community. Elizabeth Warren: (30:50)But we cannot just say that criminal justice is the only time we want to talk about race specifically. We need to start having race-conscious laws. Housing, for example, I have a great housing plan to build more housing in America, but understand it was the policy of the United States of America to discriminate against African Americans and any other people of color for buying homes until 1965. You can't just repeal that and say "Okay, now everything is even." It's not. We need race-conscious laws in education and employment, in entrepreneurship, to make this country a country of opportunity for everyone, no matter the color of their skin. Andrew Yang: (31:37)Elizabeth, with respect, you can't regulate away racism with a whole patchwork of laws that are race-specific. What we have to do is heed the writings of Martin Luther King, whose birthday we just celebrated. He said that capitalism forgets that life is social, and what he was championing was a guaranteed minimum income for all Americans of $1000 a month or more that would end up reshaping our economy in communities of color, make it so that black net work is not 10% of white net worth in this country, which is the most important number of them all. We can't regulate that away through any other means except by putting money directly into the hands of African Americans and Latinos and people of color to allow businesses to actually flourish and grow in those communities. The only way that will happen is if black and Latino consumers have buying power, and that is where we have to move as a country. Linsey Davis: (32:33)Senator Sanders, then Mr. Steyer. Tom Steyer: (32:36)Let me say this, I disagree. Andrew, no, let me say this. I disagree with you Andrew. I am the person on this stage who will say openly, I'm for reparations. Something wrong happened. I am for reparations to African Americans in this country, and anyone who things that racism is a thing of the past and not an ongoing problem is not dealing with reality. In fact, three days ago, one of the leaders of Joe Biden's South Carolina campaign made racist remarks about someone associated with our campaign, and the Legislative Black Caucus went out en masse to stand up for that man and for our campaign. Joe, I'm asking you to come with me and the Legislative Black Caucus and disavow Dick Harpootlian and what he had to say. It was wrong, and I'm asking you to join us. Be on the right side. Joe Biden : (33:25)I'm asking you to join me and join in the support I have from the overwhelming number of the members of that Black Caucus. I have more support in South Carolina in the Black Caucus and the black community than anybody else. Double what you have, or anybody else here. Bernie Sanders: (33:36)I don't think that's quite right. Tom Steyer: (33:37)But wait a second, wait a second. Bernie. Joe Biden : (33:39)Well, that is quite right. Tom Steyer: (33:40)Let's not argue about polls. Bernie, this isn't about polls. Linsey Davis: (33:43)Senator Sanders Joe Biden : (33:43)This is not about polls. I'm not talking about polls. Bernie Sanders: (33:47)Let me just say, first of all, we have nine members of the Black Caucus in South Carolina supporting us, but more importantly, much of what Elizabeth said is absolutely correct. We have a racist society from top to bottom impacting healthcare, housing, criminal justice, education, you name it. And clearly this is an issue that must be dealt with. But in terms of criminal justice, what we have got to do is understand the system is broken, is racist. We invested our young people in jobs and education, not more jails and incarceration. We end the war on drugs, which has disproportionately impacted African Americans, Latinos, and Native Americans. We end private prisons and detention centers in America. Tom Steyer: (34:40)Bernie, I appreciate what you're saying. Bernie Sanders: (34:42)And, excuse me, we also, most people don't know this. Tonight in America, 200,000 people are in jail without having been convicted of anything. Tom Steyer: (34:52)That's right. Bernie Sanders: (34:52)200,000 people, because they can't afford the $500 for bail they need to get out of jail. That is outrageous, we're going to end cash bail in America. Tom Steyer: (35:03)Okay, let me say this. I've worked, Bernie, I've worked to end cash bail in California and it's gone. I've worked to end private prisons in California and they're gone. I'm somebody who's, our family, my wife and I started a bank specifically to support businesses owned by women, black people, and Latinos, because they couldn't get financing anywhere else. But I, Joe, I want a answer. Really. I think you should come over and disavow the statements that this man made that were openly racist, that were wrong, and the Legislative Black Caucus is against. I'm asking you to join us and do the right thing. Joe Biden : (35:41)I've already spoken to Dick Harpootlian and he in fact is, I believe, sorry for what he said. But here's the deal, folks. We've got to stop taking the black community for granted. That's the starting place. Every one of the things we talked about here, for example, in South Carolina, Jim Clyburn, he has a program, 10-15-30. We should be investing our money in those communities that haven't gotten help for a long time and give most of that help to those communities. Make it a priority. We should make sure that we have no one going to jail for a drug offense, they go directly, mandatory prison. I mean, excuse me, mandatory treatment, not prison. And we fund it. And we fund it, and three days doesn't get it. It takes at least 60 to 90 days to make any progress. We have to pay for that. Joe Biden : (36:34)Just like instead of building new prisons, we build new rehabilitation centers. We have to make sure that we have a window at the Treasury Department that allows entrepreneurs who are black and brown and minorities to be able to get loans to be able to start businesses. You know, if you own a house, I know you do know, if you own a house in an all black neighborhood, same exact house in all white neighborhood, exact same shape, the house valued in the black neighborhood would be valued as worth less, making it difficult for you to accumulate wealth, as my friend at the end of the line here says. So here's the deal: we have to do much, much more. That's what got me involved in politics in the first place, redlining, to stop it. Joe Biden : (37:13)I got involved through the Civil Rights Movement, I became a public defender. That's why I got involved. There's so many things we have to do across the board, and in education, at-risk schools. We should triple the funding we have for at-risk schools to provide for three, four, and five years old to go to school, not daycare. Increase the salaries of teachers, encourage more blacks to get into teaching, especially black men, because studies show when there's a black man in a school, it increases prospects significantly, and so on. There's a lot we can do, I've laid it all out as how to do, go to joebiden.com, you'll see the whole deal, including criminal justice reform. Linsey Davis: (37:49)Thank you Mr. Vice President. As you mentioned South Carolina, three weeks from tomorrow they'll go to the polls to vote, black voters make up about 60% of the electorate there. Senator Sanders, several weeks ago, Nina Turner, one of your national co-chairs, published an op-ed piece that said Vice President Biden has "repeatedly betrayed black voters to side with Republican lawmakers and undermine our progress." Senator Sanders, do you agree with her, one of your most visible surrogates, that Vice President Biden has repeatedly betrayed black voters? Bernie Sanders: (38:19)Well, I think what Senator Turner was talking about are some of the early actions of Vice President Biden, but no. Joe Biden is a friend of mine, and I'm not here to attack him. But what I would say is that what we need in terms of the African American community is to understand that we have got to start investing big time in education, in healthcare. There is no excuse why white families in America have 10 times more wealth than black families. No excuse that disproportionately, African Americans are in jail compared to whites. No excuse for black women dying in childbirth three times the rate that white women are doing as well. Linsey Davis: (39:06)Senator Klobuchar? Amy Klobuchar: (39:08)Yes. Linsey Davis: (39:09)You had raised your hand before. Amy Klobuchar: (39:10)Yes I did, because I think in addition to the economic argument we're making here with the sad, sad stories of a woman walking into a maternity room in New Orleans and saying her hand are swollen and walking out without her baby, and 30% of African American kids being living in poverty, we know that there are economic solutions here, to invest in those communities, housing, childcare. But there's something else insidious going on that we haven't addressed, and that is the systematic racism when it comes to voting. That is, moves across the country to limit people's right to vote, and that is why I have been leading on these bills to automatically register every kid to vote in this country when they turn 18. There is no reason that we can't do that across this country. To stop the gerrymandering by setting up independent commissions in every single state, and yes, to stop the voting purges. Amy Klobuchar: (40:08)Because what is going on right now in the words of one North Carolina court is that they are discriminating with surgical precision against African American voters, and we are not going to be able to get any of these things done if we don't give people the right to vote. Linsey Davis: (40:25)Vice President Biden and then Senator Warren. Joe Biden : (40:31)I beg your pardon? Linsey Davis: (40:31)I just wanted to give you a chance to respond. Joe Biden : (40:33)Yes, I agree completely. There should be registration, automatic registration, turning 18, you get a driver's license, whatever you do, you automatically are registered, number one. Number two, with regard to what we're going to see in South Carolina, we're all going to be there pretty soon. We'll see whether or not it works. In response to the letter that the person, I'm not saying Bernie wrote the letter, but the senator who wrote the letter was very brisk and significant with other African Americans in South Carolina taking issue with her. Joe Biden : (41:02)But look, Amy is right, the senator's correct. That is that we, in fact, there is systematic racism, and that's why our Justice Department works so hard to go after those. You know, realize there are 35 states in the United States of America that have come up with a total of 78 laws to restrict voting just in the last five years to try to keep African Americans from voting, and brown as well, black and brown people from voting. And that will be an enormous priority in my administration as it was in ours. It's just wrong, simply wrong. Elizabeth Warren: (41:41)I'm glad to stand on this stage with my fellow Democrats who talk about how important the black community is, at least at election time. Year after year after year, election after election after election, Democrats go to people in the black community and say "Boy, we really care about these issues. Racism is terrible, we all want to do something," and then somehow the problem just seems to keep getting worse. Well I think it's time we have real, concrete plans that are going to make a difference in people's lives. I proposed a two cent wealth tax. And let me tell you just one of the things we can do with a two cent wealth tax. We can cancel student loan debt for 43 million Americans, and because African Americans have to borrow more money to go to college, borrow more money while they're in college and have a harder time paying it back when they get out, that one law is going to help close the black-white wealth gap for people with student loans by about 20 points. Elizabeth Warren: (42:40)We aren't making a difference in America. We're saying to the rich folks "You keep your money, and the rest of us will talk about racism but not really do anything." I think the time for that is over, I'm ready to get in this fight and really make a change. Joe Biden : (42:54)Okay, thank you. George S.: (42:57)Actually, let's keep this debate going. Go ahead, Mr. Steyer. Tom Steyer: (43:02)Out of narrative comes policy. And we're talking about a lot of policies that affect Americans, broadly and disproportionately affect black Americans or brown Americans. But what I believe is we should set up a commission on race and deal with race explicitly. Because everyone's saying we can't have rules that are different for different people, but in fact we're here because we had rules that are different for different people. I would set up a formal commission on race on day one to retell the story of the last 400 years in America of systematic racism against African Americans, not just legal discrimination, injustice, and cruelty, but also the contribution that the African American community has made to America in building it and in leading the entire country from a moral standpoint for generations and centuries. Because I believe out of narrative comes policy. We need to repair damage that's been done officially, and pretending we're all the same is not accurate. We got here a certain way. Let's talk about Jim Crow, let's talk about Martin Luther King, let's talk about Barbara Lee, the congresswoman from Oakland who's one of our great leaders, and then let's figure out how to repair the damage so we can move forward together. George S.: (44:24)Mr. Yang, take on that argument, also what he said about reparations. Andrew Yang: (44:31)The median African American household net work is projected to be zero by 2053. Things are not getting better for people of color. If anything, they're getting wore, because we're in the process of eliminating the most common jobs in our economy. It's something of an economic unnatural disaster, and who suffers most in a natural disaster? People of color, people with lower levels of capital and access to opportunity and education. Andrew Yang: (44:58)And while I know we love to champion education here as Democrats, only 33% of Americans are going attend college, lower percentage of African Americans. There is no way we can prevent this tsunami from wiping out African American net worth unless we put straight cash into their hands sometime between now and 2053, and it's not just them, it is truck drivers, it is retail clerks, it is call center workers, it is accountants, it is bookkeepers. We are in the midst of the greatest economic transformation in the history of our country, and it's going to hit black people the hardest. We have to stop nibbling at the edges and actually start solving the real problem. George S.: (45:39)We've been getting a lot of questions from Apple News in tonight, including many about a candidate who's not on the stage tonight, but is in this race, and that is former Mayor Michael Bloomberg of New York. And this question came in from Nashville, Tennessee, says "Billionaire Michael Bloomberg has entered the race and just got the endorsement of a former Trump Navy Secretary. Why do you think you are better positioned than Bloomberg to beat Trump?" Senator Warren. Elizabeth Warren: (46:03)Look, I don't think anyone ought to be able to buy their way into a nomination or to be president of the United States. I don't think any billionaire ought to be able to do it, and I don't think people who suck up to billionaires in order to fund their campaigns out to do it. I heard everyone here talking about as Democrats, we all want to overturn Citizens United because we want to end this unlimited spending, yeah. Except everyone on this stage except Amy and me is either a billionaire or is receiving help from PACs that can do unlimited spending. So if you really want to live where you say, then put your money where your mouth is and say no to the PACs. Elizabeth Warren: (46:54)Look, I think the way we build a democracy going forward is not billionaires reaching in their own pockets or people sucking up to billionaires. The way we build it going forward is we have a grassroots movement funded from the grassroots up. That's the way I'm running this campaign. If you think it's the right way to run a campaign, to go elizabethwarren.com and pitch in $5, because understand this: our democracy hangs in the balance. If we have to fund through billionaires, then we're just going to be an America that's going to work better and better for billionaires and not for anyone else. George S.: (47:33)Senator Klobuchar, then Senator Sanders. Amy Klobuchar: (47:34)So I can't stand the big money in politics, and one of my major focuses is going to be on passing that constitutional amendment to overturn Citizens United. I didn't come from money, and I just simply think people don't look at the guy in the White House and say "Can we get someone richer?" I don't think they think that. They want to have someone that they can understand. And you know my background. My grandpa was an iron ore miner, he worked 1500 feet underground in the mines his whole life. He couldn't even graduate from high school because he had to raise his nine brothers and sisters. My grandpa saved money in a coffee can to send my dad to a two year community college. That was my family's trust, and you can't send, like Donald Trump got from his family, you can't fit $413 million in a coffee can. Amy Klobuchar: (48:26)My mom grew up and wanted to be a teacher in Wisconsin. She moved to Minnesota, she taught second grade until she was 70 years old. And no, I am not a billionaire, but I stand before you today as granddaughter of an iron ore miner, the daughter of a teacher and a newspaperman, the first woman elected to the US Senate from the state of Minnesota, someone who has passed over 100 bills as a lead Democrat in that gridlock in Washington, DC, and that is because we live in a country of shared dreams. And that means no matter where you come from, no matter where you come from, you should be able to make it. So please help me in my efforts at amyklobuchar.com. George S.: (49:05)Everybody's getting the fundraising pitches out here. Amy Klobuchar: (49:06)This is a campaign of real people. George S.: (49:07)Right now, Senator Sanders, I am coming to you, but Mayor Bloomberg is- Bernie Sanders: (49:11)Let's talk about money, and let's talk about- George S.: (49:11) Let me just put the question to you, because Mayor Bloomberg has taken on your argument- Bernie Sanders: (49:14) I've got to answer before the question, it's more George S.: (49:16) he says we need evolution, not revolution. Bernie Sanders: (49:18)I couldn't hear that. George S.: (49:19)Mayor Bloomberg has said we need evolution, not revolution, taking you on directly. Bernie Sanders: (49:23)Well, it's a funny thing. There are millions of people who can desire to run for office, but I guess if you're work $60 billion and you can spend several hundred million dollars on commercials, you have a slight advantage. That is nonsense. What we have got to do is have a nation in which we not only overturn Citizens United, we move to public funding of election. Bernie Sanders: (49:51)In terms of money in politics, our campaign, and I am enormously proud of this, unlike some of the folks up here, I don't have 40 billionaires, Pete, contributing to my campaign, coming from the pharmaceutical industry, coming from Wall Street, and all the big money interests. What we do have is we have now over six million contributions from one and a half million people averaging $18.50 a contribution. That is unprecedented in the history of American politics. If we want to change America, you're not going to do it be electing candidates who are going out to rich people's homes begging for money. The way we're going to do it is build a mass movement of working people who are prepared to stand up, not take money from these billionaires, not take money from Wall Street, but stand up to the drug companies and Wall Street. And if you want to be part of that political revolution, berniesanders.com. George S.: (51:03)Mayor Buttigieg, close this round out. Pete Buttigieg: (51:09)We are going into the fight of our lives. Donald Trump, according to news reports, and his allies raised $25 million today. We need to go into that fight with everything that we've got. Now I've been very clear on both my record, where I have sued pharmaceutical companies, and what I'm campaigning for, that includes raising wages and raising taxes on corporations and the wealthy. And as the only person on this stage who is not a millionaire or a billionaire, I know a thing or two about building a movement because mayor of South Bend, Indiana is not exactly an establishment fundraising powerhouse. Pete Buttigieg: (51:49)We are here without the involvement of any corporate PACs because hundreds of thousands of people went to, yes, peteforamerica.com, contributed to this campaign, and let me say something else. If we want to bring about any of the changes that everyone is talking about so elegantly up here, we need to put together the majority that can decisively defeat Donald Trump. And in order to do that, we need a politics that is defined not by who we reject, but how we bring everybody into the fold. And if you are low-income, or if you're able to contribute a lot. If you've always voted Democrat, or if you're an Independent or even a Republican who's just sick of looking your kids in the eye and trying to explain this White House, we need you to join us right now. I will not pursue politics by telling people they can't be at our side if they're not with us 100% of the time. This is a time for addition, not rejection, for belonging, not exclusion. David Muir: (52:49)Mayor Buttigieg, thank you. I want to turn to climate change and jobs here in America. President Trump just signed the United States-Mexico-Canada Agreement, many call it an updated NAFTA. But it odes include incentives to make cars here in North America and it does open Canadian markets for American dairy farmers. Senator Sanders, as we sit here in New Hampshire tonight, both New Hampshire senators Maggie Hassan and Senator Jeanne Shaheen supported this, calling it a real win for workers and for farmers. You voted no, because you said you believe it takes us back years on climate. Were the senators from New Hampshire wrong? Bernie Sanders: (53:26)Yes. I mean, it's a disagreement, but if you look at every environmental group in this country, including the Sunrise organization, we're so proud to have their support, because we have introduced the most comprehensive climate change proposal I think ever authored by a presidential candidate. But they are saying, what the environmental groups are saying, we're simply exporting fossil fuel emissions to Mexico. There is not one word in that trade agreement Bernie Sanders: (54:03)There is not one word in that trade agreement that deals with climate change and I don't know how in 2020 you can do that. Second of all, there is, in terms of outsourcing of jobs, a major crisis in this country. Nobody believes that under this Trump trade agreement that they will not be continued and significant outsourcing of jobs into low wage Mexico, where workers are paid in some cases less than $2 an hour. So I think the right vote was the vote against that agreement. I don't apologize for that. George S.: (54:36)Senator Sanders, thank you. I do want to go to Senator Klobuchar. You've heard what Senator Sanders just said there. He said not one word on climate in the trade deal. So why did you vote yes? Amy Klobuchar: (54:44)Well, first of all, I want to defend the honor of the incredible two senators from New Hampshire, Jeanne Shaheen and Maggie Hassan, who work so hard for this state every day and I voted with them. Why did I vote with them? Because there were some major improvements in this trade agreement when it comes to labor inspections, when it comes to getting rid of a sweetheart pharma deal that was in place and when it comes to climate change, I think we have to have a North American trading block. We have to have Mexico and Canada and America working together and the best way to take on climate change as president, yes, I'll work to make this a part of every future trade agreement, but the best way to take on climate change is by getting back into the international climate change agreement, which I will do on day one. Amy Klobuchar: (55:32)It is bringing back the clean power rules. It is bringing back the gas mileage standards and it is introducing sweeping legislation to put a price on carbon and you cannot divorce trade from that, and in future trade agreements, that should be part of our negotiations. But I'm telling you right now, having no trade agreement with Canada and Mexico puts us at such a disadvantage when it comes to dealing with China and pushing China to do better when it comes to climate change. George S.: (55:59)Senator Klobuchar, thank you. Senator Warren, you voted yes as well. Elizabeth Warren: (56:03)Yes I did, and I'll tell you why, because there are a lot of farmers around this country that are really hurting because of Donald Trump's trade policies. There are a lot of workers who are hurting because they can't get enforcement of any workers' rights. So this NAFTA provision, after a lot of negotiation with Democrats, Senator Sherrod Brown helped make it a whole lot better. This makes things somewhat better for workers and for farmers and when I see a law that makes things somewhat better for hardworking people in this country, I'm saying, I'll sign up for that and then I'll get up tomorrow morning and I'll start working hard for a better trade deal on climate, a better trade deal that has a basic coherence to it. Everyone wants to get to the American market. We should be raising standards on climate around the world to get access to our market. George S.: (56:56)Mr. Steyer. Tom Steyer: (56:58)Yeah, I got to agree with Bernie Sanders, I do. Senator Warren is right. Everybody wants to get into our market, and that's how we convince them that they've got to be right on climate too. That we have to stop making foreign policy decisions in the old way. Yeah, of course, we want to make things better for American workers, and it's absolutely critical that when we think about trade policy, we're thinking about it from the point of view of the American people, not of the American corporations. That's a huge positive change. And I agree with the senators on that, but there's something else going on here when we think about our foreign policy. We talked about whether it was right to kill General Soleimani, and there was no discussion in that about where that leaves the United States in the community of nations around the world. Tom Steyer: (57:55)So if we actually want to be the leaders of the world, the leaders of the free world who can actually negotiate a climate treaty around the world that sticks, that makes a difference, we're going to have to put climate first, and when we think about doing the wrong thing, the way Mr. Trump did with General Soleimani, we have to ask, does that help us build a coalition of countries around the world to do the right thing? It absolutely does not. Tom Steyer: (58:21)Being all by ourselves, being the Empire in the Star Wars movie does not put us in a position to get done what we need to get done as the leader of the free world. So in fact, the USMCA is something, that's the first step, but the second step is exactly what Bernie Sanders is saying. Use access to our market as a negotiating thing to make sure not only that we represent American workers, but that we represent the American people in the long run and we make sure that we get a safe climate deal. Amy Klobuchar: (58:50)One of the things about being in the arena is you have to make decisions all the time and these things aren't always exactly how you would do them. But in this case, if you want to criticize Trump for not ever having any friends, and I would agree, he always sides with tyrants over innocents. He always sides with dictators over allies, but I think you've got to have some friends and those two countries, our neighbors, may not be perfect, but they are our friends, and we have a president that literally blames everyone in the world, and we have not talked about this enough. Amy Klobuchar: (59:21)He blames Barack Obama for everything that goes wrong. He blames his federal reserve chair that he appointed himself. He blames the King of Denmark, who does that? He blames the prime minister of Canada for, he claims, cutting him out of the Canadian version of Home Alone 2, who does that? That's what Donald Trump does. So my point here is that when we have opportunities to work with our allies, and New Hampshire is such a great example of this, New Hampshire, Bretton Woods, New Hampshire, with senators like Jeanne Shaheen and Maggie Hassen, who believe we need to work with NATO and the rest of the world who sees it as a smaller state, but a state that is a piece of the world. We cannot be alone, and that trade agreement was not perfect, but the point of it is, if we start isolating ourselves from the rest of the world, we are going to hurt ourselves economically and we are going to hurt our nation's security. George S.: (01:00:17)All right. Senator Klobuchar, thanks very much. We have hit the two hour mark, we need to take a quick break and come back for the final question. Devin Dwyer: (01:02:40)Welcome back to Manchester, New Hampshire and the ABC News Democratic Debate. Thanks for joining us here on ABC News Live tonight. I'm Devin Dwyer, joined with our political correspondent, Rachel Scott. Rachel, we heard so much this last block about gun policy, abortion, climate change, and then the issue of race, pushed on by Tom Steyer and really a lot of the candidates confronting Joe Biden, a sign of where this campaign is headed. Rachel Scott: (01:03:05)Exactly, Devin. Steyer tonight calling out the lack of discussion when it comes to race on that stage, the conversation turning 90 minutes into this debate and Biden touting what the national polls reflect. His loyalty among African American voters. I have sat down with the vice president, he has told me it's one of the things that he is most proud of, his loyalty among black supporters, and if you want to just see how important black voters are to the democratic base, all you have to look at are the numbers from 2016, the exit polls from that primary, 6 out of 10 voters in Mississippi were black, 61% of voters in the South Carolina primary were black, and that's where the candidates are going to be heading very soon ahead of that. Devin Dwyer: (01:03:41)And to Nevada as well with a lot of voters of color there and Joe Biden holding a lion's share of those voters. We'll see if these candidates can chip away. You know, we were talking so many of the policies we heard about tonight, like so many of the previous debates, are familiar positions from these candidates, which is why the style of their performance tonight is going to get a lot of attention from voters. Rachel Scott: (01:04:02)It will, but you know, when I talk to voters as I travel the country, they tell me their number one concern is electability. They want someone that could be President Trump, they want someone that could carry this over the finish line and that's why you hear so much of the session pitting back to who can do that on that stage today. Devin Dwyer: (01:04:18)I was up in Derry, New Hampshire just yesterday hearing not only a lot of attention on those qualities of style, but also a lot of anxiety over this issue of electability particularly now with Donald Trump's polling numbers on the rise, his performance at the State of the Union and his acquittal in that Senate trial. It's going to be a four day sprint, I know you're going to be out there all weekend as I will as well and we were just talking about what this moment in this campaign will mean. We could see a dramatically smaller field after Tuesday night here in New Hampshire. Rachel Scott: (01:04:49)Tom Perez came out here and he said, listen, we are beginning a 90 day sprint. Most of the delegates are going to be grabbed up by the end of this 90 days and the candidates really have to hone in on their pitch here. The voting has started, already. We're moving into the New Hampshire primary and a lot of these candidates have a lot on the line here. They only have a few days left to gain momentum before that next vote is cast, and again, this race is getting tighter and tighter. Devin Dwyer: (01:05:13)And we know Donald Trump will be here in New Hampshire and Manchester as well, on Monday. So things are going to get a little even more exciting four days ahead of the New Hampshire primaries. We had back now for the final question in this ABC News Democratic Debate. Take a look at the speaking times of the candidates. We'll leave you with that. Joe Biden, top of the list, all the candidates back at their podiums. Stay with us right here on ABC News Live. Announcer: (01:05:45)The democratic debate. Here now, George Stephanopoulos. George S.: (01:05:49)Welcome back to our debate, time now for a final question. Each of you will answer it in turn. We'll start with Mr.Yang, and the question is this. According to the Children's Defense Fund, it's been more than 20 years since child poverty was directly addressed in a presidential debate. The year was 1999 the question was our friend and former [inaudible 01:06:13] who may be watching right now, the late Cokie Roberts. George S.: (01:06:19)Cokie loved the New Hampshire primary, and she asked the candidates in this Republican debate, how will we overcome the scandal of one quarter of American preschoolers living in poverty in the richest nation on earth? Today, nearly one in five American preschoolers are still living below the poverty line, even though we've had 10 straight years of economic growth. What does that say to you about where America is today and what we need to do about it? Andrew Yang: (01:06:46)George, we're in the midst of the most extreme winner take all economy in the history of our country, and unfortunately, that extremity is just going to reach unprecedented heights as technology is getting stronger, smarter, more capable all the time, and most of us are not. Most adults feel happy if we stayed about the same on any given day. So if we want to alleviate child poverty, we need to put money directly into the hands of families, particularly single parents, 40% of American children today are born to single moms, 90% of single parents are single moms and right now we have fallen into this trap where we have allowed the market to tell us what we are all worth. Andrew Yang: (01:07:29)What is the market value my wife, Evelyn had, or stay at home parents around the country? Zero. Caregivers taking care of ailing loved ones, like Kyle Christensen in Iowa? Zero. Volunteers and activists in our communities trying to do something positive? Zero. Coaches and mentors helping our kids? Zero. Most artists, sorry artists, but it's true. Zero. Increasingly local journalists, which is wiping out our ability to have a functioning democracy because you can't vote on something if you actually don't have any news coverage. The mission in this campaign has to be for us to disentangle economic value and human value, say they are not the same things and make this case to our fellow Americans. That we each have intrinsic value as citizens, as human beings and as owners and shareholders of the richest country in the history of the world. Pete Buttigieg: (01:08:27)The problem is, America's been counting the wrong things. Now we have a president who says the economy is fantastic because the Dow Jones is looking good. I'm sure if you've got a building with your name on it close to Wall Street, then that really is the same thing as the economy to you. But the problem is, we've had an economy grow and not be able to lift up those most in need, or even so many in the middle. Pete Buttigieg: (01:08:53)When I'm president, we're going to measure the performance of our economy, not by the Dow Jones but by the income growth of the 90%, because a good economy is one where children are being lifted out of poverty. Just as we focused in South B on cutting the poverty rate, in particular, the black poverty rate and making sure families with children were participating in the growth that we did have. This is one more example of something where the American people want to see change. The American people, not just die hard Democrats, but so many Independents and some Republicans, think we need to prioritize economic equity and yet it still doesn't happen. That is why we need to recognize that the time has arrived for a different kind of politics. To turn the page, leave the politics of the past in the past and deliver a better future before it is too late. George S.: (01:09:47)Senator Warren. Elizabeth Warren: (01:09:52)So I started my grownup life as a special education teacher. I learned early on about the worth of every single human being, and I believe that the best investment we can make as a nation, the best investment we can make as human beings, is to invest in our children. We've had enough of making rhetoric around this. Everyone says they love the kids, but here's the deal. It's time to come up with real plans to make that happen. I've talked before about a two cent wealth tax, but the whole idea behind it is we can do early childhood education and good quality child care, universal pre-K for every three year old and four year old in America, and we can stop exploiting the people, largely black and brown women who do this work and raise the wages of every childcare worker and preschool teacher in America. Elizabeth Warren: (01:10:53)We want to have a real future in this country, then invest in our children. Don't leave public education just to our localities in our states. Be a good federal partner. Put real money into our schools, put real money into housing, put real money into into healthcare. Put real money into the future of our children. That's how we build the America of our best values. George S.: (01:11:22)Mr. Vice President. Joe Biden : (01:11:26)I come from a family where our dad walked in one day and said, we've got to move. Don't have a job. We've got to move to a different city. I watched my dad and I met many people here in this state and others, who go through the same thing where the father's made that longest walk or the mother's made that longest walk. I was listed for the entire time I was in the United States Congress as the poorest man in the United States Congress. My net worth was net zero a couple of times. The fact of the matter is that I've never focused on money for me and I was a single dad for five years. It's not as hard as being a single mom and I had help from my sisters in the audience and others, but the fact is that I think we have to focus on what is at stake here. Joe Biden : (01:12:09)These aren't someone else's children. They're all our children. They're the kite strings that lift our national ambitions, they really are. They lift our national ambitions aloft. We have an overwhelming interest, overwhelming interest in seeing to it they do well. You know, 24 out of every 100 students in school today, from grade school to high school, are Latino. What are we going to do? Walk away from that? Joe Biden : (01:12:33)Many of them come from homes that are poor, very poor. That's why I invest so much time and energy in preschool. That's why if I only have $1 to spend, I spend it equipping the child before they get into school in the early day, than after and we talk about all those kids out there that are going to be graduating. A great number of them, as Mr. Yang said, aren't going on to college, although I think we should help with college. They're not going on to college. What they're going to do, they're going to be equipped to compete in the 21st century by training them for the new trades, the new opportunities, the new capabilities that are out there. We must focus on our children. Like I said, they're all our children, they're not somebody else's kids. Everyone, everyone, everyone, everyone, as my father would say, is entitled to be treated with dignity and respect and we're not doing it. George S.: (01:13:20)Senator Sanders. Bernie Sanders: (01:13:21)Well, the answer to your question of why we have the highest rate of childhood poverty of almost any major country on earth, disproportionately high for the African American community, by the way, is the same reason that we give massive trillion dollar tax breaks to the rich and large corporations. Same reason that we give tens of billions of dollars in subsidies and tax breaks to the fossil fuel industry, while half of our people are living paycheck to paycheck. The same reason that we have three people in America owning more wealth than the bottom half of America. Bernie Sanders: (01:13:59)The same reason that we are the only major country on earth not to guarantee healthcare to all people as a human right. Same reason as to why we are paying in some cases 10 times more than other countries for prescription drugs, and that reason is that our priorities are determined by the 1% and by wealthy campaign contributors. Our priorities are determined by those who want to see the rich get richer and are turning their backs on the working families of this country. What is unique about our campaign, is we say, unashamedly, we are raising our campaign contributions, not from billionaires but from working class people. That our campaign is about the working families of this country for the working class of this country and that is the administration that we will run. It is time to take on the big money interests. It is time to change our national priorities. Thank you. George S.: (01:15:02)Senator Klobuchar. Amy Klobuchar: (01:15:05)In Cokie's memory, let me answer this question. We may have lost an election in 2016, Democrats, but we did not lose hope. And there is a way, it's actually based on a National Academy of Science report and I've used that to put together a plan to reduce child poverty in half in 10 years and eradicate it in a generation. We can do it with investment in childcare. We can do it with investment in preschool and school and we can do it with tax credits and we can get it done. But to get it done, we have to be able to reach those voters that we lost in this state and across the country. Amy Klobuchar: (01:15:43)There's an old story of Franklin Delano Roosevelt, and when he died, his body was put on a train and went up across America and there was a guy standing by those tracks along with so many Americans, and he had his hat on his chest and he was sobbing and a reporter said, Sir, did you know the president? And the guy says, no, I didn't know the president, but he knew me. He knew me. I will tell you this, there is a complete lack of empathy in this guy in the White House right now. I will bring that to you. Amy Klobuchar: (01:16:20)If you have trouble stretching your paycheck to pay for that rent. I know you and I will fight for you. If you have trouble deciding if you're going to pay for your childcare or your longterm care, I know you and I will fight for you. If you have trouble figuring out if you're going to fill your refrigerator or fill your prescription drug, I know you and I will fight for you. I do not have the biggest name up on this stage. I don't have the biggest bank account. I'm not a political newcomer with no record, but I have a record of fighting for people. I'm asking you to join firstname.lastname@example.org. I'm asking you to believe that someone who totally believes in America can win this because if you are tired of the extremes in our politics and the noise and the nonsense, you have a home with me, Please, New Hampshire, I would love your vote and I would love the vote of America. Thank you. George S.: (01:17:17)Mr. Steyer. Tom Steyer: (01:17:24)The Republicans have a cruel plan and their plan is pretty simple. It's to cut taxes on the richest Americans and the biggest corporations and then they pay for it by cutting education for kids, by cutting healthcare across the board, by allowing corporations to pollute as much as they want, and then they try and break unions and the organized labor movement. It's very simple. That's what Mr. Trump's plan is and it's true in every single red state, but we are not going to win by just criticizing Mr. Trump. I know that there is a better America out there and that America lives in our hearts and minds. And that America understands that when a kid succeeds in Columbia, South Carolina, that is a triumph for every American. And the same is true of a kid in Las Vegas, Nevada. Mr. Trump has no idea what prosperity looks like across this country. It's not just that he does bad things. He doesn't understand that investing in education and healthcare and good union jobs is actually an investment in our common humanity and in growth in the future, mobility and justice. That is the America that lives in our hearts and minds that will beat Mr. Trump, because he will never be able to imagine it. So in fact, what we need to do is have a new conception, a new dream of America, dream it and make it happen. Imagine the mountain and then we climb it together. We are in perilous times. I am asking for your vote. Let's rise together. George S.: (01:19:09)Candidates. Thank you. Thanks for a great debate tonight. Thanks to our audience here at Saint Anselm College. Thanks for our partners, WMUR and Apple News and now I'd like to send it to my colleague Martha Raddatz.
BY JUSTINE COLEMAN | THE HILL © Getty Images Democratic presidential candidates entrepreneur Andrew Yang, Sen. Amy Klobuchar (D-Minn.) and billionaire Tom Steyer all saw an increase in favorability following the December debate, a poll released Monday said. This week’s Morning Consult poll found that Yang saw a 7 percentage point increase in favorability to 34 percent after the debate. Klobuchar and Steyer both rose 5 percentage points in favorability to 25 percent and 20 percent, respectively. Yang and Klobuchar both saw fundraising boosts following the debate, with Yang reportedly raising $750,000 and Klobuchar claiming to collect more than $1 million by Friday night. The debate held last week featured a smaller number of candidates, allowing some of the lesser-known candidates to shine on stage. Former Vice President Joe Biden maintained his lead at 31 percent support following the debate, with runner-up Sen. Bernie Sanders (I-Vt.) reaching 21 percent support. The poll surveyed 7,178 people between Dec. 20 and Dec. 22. The poll had a margin of error of 1 percentage point.
ANNOUNCER: This is the PBS "NewsHour" "Politico" Democratic Debate. Now, live from Los Angeles, Judy Woodruff. WOODRUFF: Welcome back. A quick reminder to have rules for this debate. Each candidate has one minute and 15 seconds to answer direct questions from the moderators, and 45 seconds to answer rebuttal and follow-up questions. Tonight's podium order on the stage was determined by an average of recent polls. AD And let's begin. To the candidates -- last night, at this hour, the House of Representatives voted for only the third time in American history to impeach a president. Every one of you was in favor of this action. But unlike 1974 and President Nixon, congressional Democrats have, so far, not convinced a strong majority of Americans to support impeachment of President Trump. Why do you think that is, and what can you say or do differently in the coming weeks to persuade more Americans that this is the right thing to do? I want to ask all of you to respond, but to begin with Vice President Biden. BIDEN: You know, Judy, it was a constitutional necessity for the House to act as it did. And, you know, Trump's response to suggest that only half of the American people want to see him thrown out of office now, I find, is dumbing down the presidency beyond what I even thought he would do. You know, is it any wonder that if you look at the international polling that's been done, that the Chinese leader is rated above American -- the American president or that Vladimir Putin congratulated him saying, stand fast and, in fact, it was a mistake to impeach him. AD You know, we need to restore the integrity of the presidency, the office of the presidency, and it's about time we get that underway. My job and I think the job of all of us up here is to, in fact -- well, that's not true, some are going to actually be voting in the Senate -- but my job is just to go out and make the case why he doesn't deserve to be president of the United States for another four years. WOODRUFF: Senator Sanders, why do you think more people are not in support of impeachment and what else can you do? SANDERS: Well, Judy, what I would say is that we have a president who is a pathological liar. We have a president who is running the most corrupt administration in the modern history of this country, and we have a president who is a fraud, because during his campaign, he told working people one thing, and he ended up doing something else. AD I believe, and I will personally be doing this in the coming weeks and months, is making the case that we have a president ho has sold out the working families of this country, who wants to cut Social Security, Medicare and Medicaid after he promised he would not do that, and who has documentedly lied thousands of times since he is president. And the case is to be made is -- yes, certainly, I disagree with Trump on virtually all of his policies, but what conservatives, I think, understand is that we cannot have a president with that temperament who is dishonoring the presidency of the United States. WOODRUFF: Senator Warren, why do you think -- (APPLAUSE) WOODRUFF: -- why do you think more Americans don't agree that this is the right thing to do? And what more can you say? WARREN: So, I see this as a constitutional moment. Last night, the president was impeached, and everyone now in the Senate who has taken a constitutional oath to uphold our Constitution -- and that doesn't mean loyalty to an individual, it doesn't mean loyalty to a political party, it means loyalty to our country -- and that vote will play out over the next several weeks. AD But the way I see this is we've now seen the impact of corruption, and that's what's clearly on the stage in 2020, is how we are going to run against the most corrupt president in living history. You know, this president has made corruption originally his argument that he would drain the swamp, and, yet, he came to Washington, broke that promise, and has done everything he can for the wealthy and the well-connected, from tax breaks to ambassadorships. We have to prosecute the case against him, and that means we need a candidate for president who can draw the sharpest distinction between the corruption of the Trump administration and a Democrat who is willing to get out and fight not for the wealthy and well-connected but to fight for everyone else. That's why I'm in this race. (APPLAUSE) WOODRUFF: Senator Klobuchar -- Senator Klobuchar, what argument can you make to persuade more Americans this is the right thing? AD KLOBUCHAR: Let me make the case to the American people. As a wise judge said, the president is not king in America, the law is king. And what James Madison once said when he was speaking out at the Constitutional Convention -- and, by the way, I think he's a pretty good size for a president, he was five-foot-four. (LAUGHTER) And what he said, he said the reason that we have these impeachment articles in the Constitution, that the provisions are in there, is because he feared that a president would betray the trust of the American people for a foreign power. That is what happened here. Watergate -- this is a global Watergate. In the case of Watergate, a paranoid president facing election looked for dirt on a political opponent. He did it by getting people to break in. This president did it by calling a foreign leader to look for dirt on a political opponent. AD And I would make this case: as we face this trial in the Senate, if the president claims that he is so innocent, then why doesn't he have all the presidents men testify? Richard Nixon had his top people testify. (APPLAUSE) We should be hearing from Mulvaney, who is the one under oath. Witnesses have said that Mulvaney is the one that said, OK, we're going to withhold this aid to a fledgling democracy to get dirt on a political opponent. We should hear from Bolton who told his own staff to go see a lawyer after they met with the president. That is the case. If President Trump thinks he should not be impeached, he should not be scared to put forward his own witnesses. WOODRUFF: Mayor Buttigieg -- (APPLAUSE) WOODRUFF: Mayor Buttigieg, what additional argument can you make to the American people? BUTTIGIEG: At the end of the day, this is beyond public opinions. This is beyond polls. This is beyond politics. AD The president left the House with no choice, and I think a lot of us are watching this process, watching Washington go through the motions, and not expecting much but a foregone conclusion when it gets to the Senate. We cannot give in to that sense of helplessness, because that's what they want. They want us to be taken in by that cynicism to where we give up on the process altogether. Meanwhile, their allies are laughing all the way to the bank, as we see policies that let giant corporations -- some of which made billions in profits, pay not just zero, but as we've recently learned negative taxes -- all the while they block policies that would actually boost wages for working Americans. Here's the good news: it's up to us. No matter what happens in the Senate, it is up to us in 2020. This is our chance to refuse to be taken in by the helplessness, to refuse and reject the cynicism. AD That is what this presidential election is about. It is what my campaign is about: our opportunity in 2020, no matter what happens in Washington, as a country, to change the course of this nation for the better. (APPLAUSE) WOODRUFF: Mr. Yang, what more -- (APPLAUSE) YANG: I'm over here. WOODDRUFF: Mr. Yang, what more can you say (ph) to the American people? (CROSSTALK) YANG: Judy -- WOODRUFF: I'm sorry, Mr. Steyer. I'm sorry. STEYER: Well, let me remind everyone that I'm the person who started the Need to Impeach Movement over two years ago because I -- (APPLAUSE) STEYER: -- because I believe what counts here is actually the American people's opinion. Over eight and a half million signed that petition and dragged Washington into the idea that, actually, the most corrupt president in American history -- it's not a question of political expediency, it's not a question of political tactics, it's a question of right and wrong. So, now, when we look at what's going on, I actually agree with Senator Klobuchar. The question here is, if we want the American people to understand what's going on, we need to have the administration officials testify on TV so we can judge. The court that counts here is the court of public opinion. The American people deserve to see the truth of these administration officials testifying under oath so we can make up our mind. If we want Republican senators to do the right thing, we need their constituents to see the truth on TV and tell them, get rid of this guy or we'll get rid of you. That's what I believe in. I'm a believer in the grassroots as an outsider, getting the American people's voice to count. That's who I trust and that's who I trust now. WOODRUFF: Mr. Yang? (APPLAUSE) YANG: It's clear why Americans can't agree on impeachment, we're getting news from different sources, and it's making it hard for us even to agree on basic facts. Congressional approval rating, last I checked, was something like 17 percent, and Americans don't trust the media networks to tell them the truth. The media networks didn't do us any favors by missing a reason why Donald Trump became our president in the first place. If your turn on cable network news today, you would think he's our president because of some combination of Russia, racism, Facebook, Hillary Clinton, and emails all mixed together. But Americans around the country know different. We blasted away 4 million manufacturing jobs that were primarily based in Ohio, Michigan, Pennsylvania, Wisconsin, Missouri. I just left Iowa -- we blasted 40,000 manufacturing jobs there. The more we act like Donald Trump is the cause of all our problems, the more Americans lose trust that we can actually see what's going on in our communities and solve those problems. What we have to do is we have to stop being obsessed over impeachment, which, unfortunately, strikes many Americans like a ball game where you know what the score is going to be, and actually start digging in and solving the problems that got Donald Trump elected in the first place. We have to take every opportunity to present a new positive vision for the country, a new way forward to help beat him in 2020 because, make no mistake, he'll be there at the ballot box for us to defeat. WOODRUFF: Thank you, Mr. Yang. (APPLAUSE) WOODRUFF: Let's turn now to an issue that is on the minds of all Americans, and that is the economy. Senator Sanders, today, the House of Representatives voted for a new bipartisan trade agreement among the United States, Canada and Mexico. It was supported by union-friendly leaders like Speaker Nancy Pelosi and big labor groups like the AFL-CIO. They say it is going to be a big job creator. Senator, my question is, will you support this deal? And, if not, why not? SANDERS: Judy, you're talking to somebody who, unlike some of my colleagues here, voted against NAFTA, voted against PNTR with China -- two agreements that cost us over 4 million decent-paying jobs. Now, I don't agree with the -- your statement that people think this is going to be a great job creator. This is a modest improvement over what we have right now. It would allow, hopefully, Mexican workers to organize into unions, independent unions and be able to negotiate decent contracts. But at the end of the day, in my view, it is not going to stop outsourcing. It is not going to stop corporations from moving to Mexico, where manufacturing workers make less than $2 an hour. What we need is a trade policy that stands up for workers, stands up for farmers. And, by the way, the word "climate change," to the best of my knowledge, is not discussed in this new NAFTA agreement at all, which is an outrage. So, no, I will not be voting for this agreement, although it makes some modest improvements. WOODRUFF: Senator Klobuchar? KLOBUCHAR: I have a different view. I'll go with my friend, Sherrod Brown, who has voted against every trade agreement that's come in front of him, and he's voting for this, and I am, too. And the reason I am voting for it is that I believe that we have a change with this agreement. I would not have voted for the agreement that President Trump put forward, but we've got better labor standards, better environmental standards, and a better deal when it comes to the pharmaceutical provision, which I also opposed. Ninety-five percent of our customers are outside of our borders. And we have to make sure that we have trade agreements that are more fair, because if we can encourage work made in America, every time you hold something in your hand that says "Made in America," it is the ingenuity of our workers, it is the quality of a product, it is equality of our workers, and it is the hopes and dreams of the American people. I think this agreement -- while Senator Sanders is correct, there are some issues with it -- is much better than the one originally proposed. And for those farmers in the Midwest and for those people that have been hurt by the fact that we will not have a trade segment with Mexico and with Canada and the United States, I think that this is a much better deal. WOODRUFF: All right, we can pull some of your -- I see some other hands up. I want to move to the next question, and you can bring in, I think, your points with this. This one I'm going to initially address to Vice President Biden, and that is the overall U.S. economy right now looks strong. The unemployment rate is at historic lows. Unemployment among African-Americans is down. The markets are booming. Wages, while not growing as much as many would like, they're still doing about as well as they were in the Obama-Biden era. My question to you, Mr. Vice President, is what is your argument to the voter watching this debate tonight who may not like everything President Trump does but they really like this economy and they don't know why they should make a change. BIDEN: Well, I don't think they really do like the economy. Go back and talk to the old neighborhoods and middle-class neighborhoods you grew up in. The middle class is getting killed. The middle class is getting crushed. And the working class has no way up as a consequence of that. You have, for example, farmers in the Midwest, 40 percent of them couldn't pay their bills last year. You have most Americans, if they received a bill for $400 or more, they'd have to sell something or borrow the money. The middle class is not as behind the eight ball. We have to make sure that they have an even shot. We have to eliminate a significant number of these god-awful tax cuts that were given to the very wealthy. We have to invest in education. We have to invest in health care. We have to invest in those things that make a difference in the lives of middle-class people so they can maintain their standard of living. That's not being done. And the idea that we're growing -- we're not growing. The wealthy, very wealthy are growing. Ordinary people are not growing. They are not happy with where they are. And that's why we must change this presidency now. (APPLAUSE) WOODRUFF: Mayor Buttigieg, is that your -- is that your assessment? BUTTIGIEG: Yes. Where I live, folks aren't measuring the economy by how the Dow Jones is looking. They're measuring the economy by how they're doing. When you're doing the bills at the end of the month at your kitchen table, and you find that even if your wages have gone up, it's not nearly going as fast as the cost of health and housing. This economy is not working for most of us, for the middle class, and -- I know you're only ever supposed to say middle class and not poor in politics, but we've got to talk about poverty in this country. There is not one county in the United States of America where someone working full-time at the minimum wage can afford a two-bedroom apartment. In most places, not even a one-bedroom apartment. The biggest problem in our economy is simple: People are not getting paid enough. That is not the result of some mysterious cosmic force. It's the result of bad policy. And we've got to change it by raising wages and empowering workers. (APPLAUSE) WOODRUFF: Mr. Yang? Mr. Yang? YANG: GDP and corporate profits are at record highs in America today. Also at record highs? Depression, financial insecurity, student loan debt. (APPLAUSE) Even suicides and drug overdoses. It has gotten so bad that our life expectancy as a country has declined for the last three years because suicides and drug overdoses have overtaken vehicle deaths for the first time in American history. The fact is, this unemployment rate and GDP have very little relationship with people's lived experience on the ground. If you're a recent college graduate, you have a 40 percent chance of doing a job that doesn't require a college degree. That doesn't show up in the headline unemployment rate, nor does all of the families that are working two or three jobs to get by. (APPLAUSE) WOODRUFF: Senator Warren, you have your hand up. WARREN: I do. WOODRUFF: And I have a question for you. WARREN: Well, I want to answer this question. WOODRUFF: Go ahead. Go ahead. WARREN: Because here's the problem. I'm proud to stand on a stage with Democrats who understand that a rise in GDP, rise in corporate profits is not being felt by millions of families across this country. I'm proud to stand on a stage with people who see that America's middle class is being hollowed out and that working families and poor people are being left behind. What we need to talk about, though, is why that has happened. And the answer is we've got a government that works great for those with money and doesn't work for much of anyone else. We have a government that works great for giant drug companies, just not for someone trying to fill a prescription. Works great for people who want to make money on private prisons and private detention centers at our border, just not for the people whose lives are torn apart. Works great for giant oil companies that want to drill everywhere, but not for the rest of us who see climate change bearing down upon us. (APPLAUSE) And when you see a government that works great for the wealthy and the well-connected and for no one else, that is corruption, pure and simple. And we need to call it out for what it is. (APPLAUSE) WOODRUFF: I want -- I want, Senator Sanders, if you would, a brief response, and then I have another question. SANDERS: Look, here's the response. Trump goes around saying the economy is doing great. Do you know what real inflation accounted for wages went up last year? 1.1 percent. That ain't great. Tonight, while three people own more wealth than the bottom half of America, 500,000 Americans, including 30,000 veterans, are sleeping out on the streets. Today in America, we have the highest rate of childhood poverty of almost any major country on Earth, more income and wealth inequality than since the 1920s. We need an economy that works for working families, not just the 1 percent. That is what our campaign is about. (APPLAUSE) WOODRUFF: Senator Warren, I have a question for you. Every candidate on the stage has proposed tax increases on the wealthy. But you have especially ambitious plans that, apart from health care, would hike taxes an additional $8 trillion over the decade, the biggest tax increase since World War II. How do you answer top economists who say taxes of this magnitude would stifle growth and investment? WARREN: Oh, they're just wrong. (APPLAUSE) Let's start with a wealth tax. The idea of a two-cent tax on the great fortunes in this country, $50 million and above. For two cents, what can we do? We can invest in the rest of America. We can provide universal childcare, early childhood education for every baby in this country, age 0 to 5, universal pre-K for every 3-year-old and 4-year-old, and raise the wages of every childcare worker and preschool teacher. We can do even more for our public schools, for college graduates. We can cancel student loan debt. But think about the economic impact of that. You leave two cents with the billionaires, they're not eating more pizzas, they're not buying more cars. We invest that 2 percent in early childhood education and childcare, that means those babies get top-notch care. It means their mamas can finish their education. It means their mamas and their daddies can take on real jobs, harder jobs, longer hours. WOODRUFF: And... WARREN: We can increase productivity in this country. And we can start building this economy from the ground up. That's how we build it in small towns. That's how we build it in rural America. And that's how we built it in urban America. An economy that works, not for Wall Street, but that works for Main Street. WOODRUFF: Brief answers -- brief responses from Mr. Steyer and Mr. Buttigieg. (APPLAUSE) STEYER: So let me say that I agree with Senator Warren in much of what she says. I've been for a wealth tax for over a year. I'm in favor of undoing all the tax breaks for rich people and big corporations that this administration has put through. (APPLAUSE) And in addition, I've talked about equilibrating the taxes on passive investment income, which would allow us to cut taxes for 95 percent of Americans by 10 percent. But there's something else going on here that I think is really important, and that's this. We know Mr. Trump is going to run on the economy. I built a business over 30 years from scratch. We're going to have to take him on, on the economy in terms of growth, as well as economic justice. We're going to have to be able to talk about growth, prosperity across the board for everyone in America. My experience building a business, understanding how to make that happen, means I can go toe-to-toe with Mr. Trump and take him down on the economy and expose him as a fraud and a failure. And I think that's different from the other people on this stage. I think we need a different, unconventional way of attacking a different, unconventional president who actually went after the best-prepared candidate in American history and beat her. WOODRUFF: Mayor Buttigieg? BUTTIGIEG: We're also being -- right now, I think we're being offered a false choice that you either have to go all the way to the extreme or it's business as usual. Yes, we must deliver big ideas and, yes, taxes on wealthy individuals and on corporations are going to have to go up. We can also be smart about the promises we're making, make sure they're promises that we can keep without the kind of taxation that economists tell us could hurt the economy. It's why, for example, I've proposed that we make college free for 80 percent of Americans. But it doesn't have to be free for the top. If you're in that top 10 percent, how about you pay your own tuition and we save those dollars for something else that we could spend them on that would make a big difference, whether it's infrastructure, childcare, housing, health? On issue after issue, we've got to break out of the Washington mindset that measures the bigness of an idea by how many trillions of dollars it adds to the budget or the boldness of an idea by how many fellow Americans it can antagonize. WOODRUFF: We're going to take a short break and we'll be right back in two minutes with questions from my fellow moderators. (COMMERCIAL BREAK) ANNOUNCER: Live from Los Angeles, the PBS NewsHour/Politico Democratic... (COMMERCIAL BREAK) ANNOUNCER: Live from Los Angeles, the PBS NewsHour/Politico Democratic debate continues. Once again, Judy Woodruff. WOODRUFF: Welcome back to the PBS NewsHour/Politico Democratic presidential debate. The next question is from Tim Alberta of Politico. ALBERTA: Thanks, Judy. Candidates, good evening. We're going to talk about climate now. Senator Klobuchar, many scientists say that even if the U.S. reduced its carbon footprint to zero by the year 2050, the damage will have been done, that climate change will have made certain places in the U.S. unlivable. So knowing this, would you support a new federal program to subsidize the relocation of American families and businesses away from places like Miami or Paradise, California, perhaps, Davenport, Iowa, because we know these places are going to be hit time and time again? KLOBUCHAR: Well, I don't -- I very much hope we're not going to have to relocate entire cities, but we will probably have to relocate some individual residents. And the problem right now is that this climate change is an existential crisis. And you are seeing it here in California with the fires that you just had. You saw it in Northern California, as was mentioned with Paradise. And the most moving video from that to me was the 30-second video of that dad driving his little girl through the lapping fires with his neighborhood burning behind him and singing to her to calm her down. We cannot wait to act. There is an Ojibway saying that great leaders make decisions not for this generation, but seven generations from now. This president doesn't keep his decisions for seven minutes. (APPLAUSE) So what I think we need to do, get back into the international climate change agreement. I will do that on day one. On day two, bring back the clean power rules. On day three, the gas mileage standards. I see the governor of California, who's been working so hard to get those done, defied every step of the way by the Trump administration. And then introduce sweeping legislation to put a price on carbon and build a fridge to the next century, which means we must upgrade our buildings and our building standards. ALBERTA: Thank you, Senator Klobuchar. Mr. Steyer, would you support such a new federal program, again, to help subsidize the relocation of these families? STEYER: Look, I am hoping that we, in fact, will do what I'm suggesting, which is declare a state of emergency on day one of my presidency. I have made this -- I believe I'm the only person here who will say unequivocally this is my number-one priority. I know that we have to deal with this crisis. I know that we have to deal with it from the standpoint of environmental justice. I've been working on this for more than a decade. I've taken on oil companies and beaten them on environmental laws. I've pushed clean energy across this country. I've prevented pipelines and I've prevented fossil fuel plants. But what I know is this: Not only can we clear up the air and water in the black and brown communities where our pollution is concentrated, this is also the opportunity to create literally millions of middle-class union jobs, well-paid, across the United States of America. Our biggest crisis is our biggest opportunity. And if we don't declare a state of emergency on day one, I don't understand how we go to the people around the world to lead the coalition that has to happen and that only America can lead. Look, this is a generational question. I have a lot of respect for the people on this stage. I know everybody is worried about this. But, for instance, I would call on Mayor Buttigieg to prioritize this higher because the people in his generation understand that this is a crisis that we have to go on right now, but it's also... ALBERTA: Thank you, Mr. Steyer. STEYER: ... the greatest opportunity to rebuild and reinvent America. ALBERTA: Thank you, Mr. Steyer. Mr. Buttigieg, 45 seconds to respond. (APPLAUSE) BUTTIGIEG: Well, I've made clear that this will be a topic of day one action. And this is not theoretical for me. I live in one of those river cities that you're talking about. Not only that, I live right by the river. My neighborhood flooded in the second of two once in a millennium floods that we had in two years. Do the math on that. So I know what's at stake. And it's why I insist that we act with a carbon tax and dividend with massive increases in renewable research, on renewable energy, energy storage, and carbon storage. But bigger than that, we have to summon the energies of the entire country to deal with this. I've seen politicians in Washington saying the right thing about climate change as long as I've been alive, all these plans we have to get carbon neutral by 2050. And I think most or all of us have one. Their impact is multiplied by zero unless something actually gets done. ALBERTA: We'd like to switch... BUTTIGIEG: And that is why I want to make sure that our vision for climate includes people from the autoworker down the block from me in South Bend to a farmer a few minutes away so that they understand that we are asking, recruiting them to be part of the solution, not beating them over the head and telling them they're part of the problem. ALBERTA: Thank you, Mr. Mayor. We'd like to switch gears slightly. Vice President Biden, I'd like to ask you. Three consecutive American presidents have enjoyed stints of explosive economic growth due to a boom in oil and natural gas production. As president, would you be willing to sacrifice some of that growth, even knowing potentially that it could displace thousands, maybe hundreds of thousands of blue-collar workers in the interest of transitioning to that greener economy? BIDEN: The answer is yes. The answer is yes, because the opportunity -- the opportunity for those workers to transition to high-paying jobs, as Tom said, is real. We're the only country in the world that's ever taken great, great crises and turned them into enormous opportunities. I've met with the union leaders. For example, we should, in fact, be making that -- making sure right now that every new building built is energy contained, that it doesn't leak energy, that, in fact -- we should be providing tax credits for people to be able to make their homes turn to solar power, where -- there's all kinds of folks out here, right here in California, who are now on the verge of having batteries that are about the size of the top of this podium that you can store energy when, in fact, the wind isn't blowing and the sun isn't shining. We have enormous opportunities. For example, you talk about, would we relocate people who, in fact, were in a position where they lost their home? We have to not rebuild to the standard that existed before when we talk about when we come in and help people. We have to rebuild with the standard that exists today. For example, we shouldn't build another new highway in America that doesn't have charging stations on it. We have an opportunity to put 550,000 charging stations so that we own the electrical vehicle market, creating millions of jobs for people installing them, as well as making sure that we own the electric vehicle market. There are so many things we can do, and we have to make sure we explain it to those people who are displaced, that their skills are going to be needed for the new opportunities. ALBERTA: Thank you, Vice President Biden. (APPLAUSE) Senator Sanders? SANDERS: Tim, in all due respect, your question misses the mark. It is not an issue of relocating people in towns. The issue now is whether we save the planet for our children and our grandchildren. (APPLAUSE) The issue, as you should know, what the scientists are telling us is they have underestimated the threat and severity of climate change. You're talking about the Paris agreement, that's fine. Ain't enough. We have got to -- and I've introduced legislation to do this -- declare a national emergency. The United States has got to lead the world. And maybe, just maybe, instead of spending $1.8 trillion a year globally on weapons of destruction, maybe an American president, i.e. Bernie Sanders, can lead the world, instead of spending money to kill each other, maybe we pool our resources and fight our common enemy, which is climate change. ALBERTA: Thank you, Senator Sanders. Thank you, Senator Sanders. (APPLAUSE) Senator Warren, a new question to you, Senator Warren. Many of our Western allies rely heavily on nuclear energy because it's efficient, affordable, and virtually carbon-free. And many climate experts believe that it's impossible to realize your goal of net zero emissions by the year 2050 without utilizing nuclear energy. So can you have it both ways on this issue? WARREN: So I see right now is we've got to get the carbon -- we've got to stop putting more carbon into the air. We've got to get the carbon out of the air and out of the water. And that means that we need to keep some of our nuclear in place. I will not build more nuclear. I want to put the energy, literally, and the money and the resources behind clean energy and by increasing by tenfold what we put into science, what we put into research and development. We need to do what we do best, and that is innovate our way out of this problem and be a world leader. But understand, the biggest climate problem we face is the politicians in Washington who keep saying the right thing but continue to take money from the oil industry, continue to bow down to the lobbyists, to the lawyers, to the think-tanks, to the bought-and-paid-for experts. America understands that we've got to make change and we're running out of time, that climate change threatens every living thing on this planet. But getting Congress to act, you know, they just don't want to hear it. And if we don't attack the corruption first, if we don't attack the corruption head-on, then we're not going to be able to make the changes we need to make on climate, on gun safety, on drug pricing, on all of the big problems that face us. ALBERTA: Thank you. WARREN: We need a Washington that doesn't just work for the rich and the powerful. We need one that works for our families. (APPLAUSE) ALBERTA: Thank you, Senator. Senator Klobuchar, and then I would like to bring in Mr. Yang and Mr. Steyer for follow-ups. KLOBUCHAR: Yeah, I want to add to what Elizabeth said. So the way we tackle corruption is by winning big in this election. And the way we take on climate change in a big way is by, yes, talking about what's happening on the coasts, as I just did, but also talking about what's happening in the Midwest, where I'm from. It's not flyover country to me. I live there. And what we are seeing there is unprecedented flooding. We're seeing an increase, 50 percent increase in homeowners insurance over the last few years. And when we make these changes, we have to make clear to people that when we put a price on carbon, that that money is going to come back to those areas where people are going to be hurt, where jobs are going to change, and to make them whole with their energy bills. When you make the case like that, you bring in the Midwestern votes. You win big. And I think the best way to do it is by putting someone at the top of the ticket who is from the Midwest. (APPLAUSE) ALBERTA: Mr. Yang, Mr. Yang, 45 seconds, on the issue of nuclear energy. YANG: Well, first, we should obviously be paying to relocate Americans away from places that are hit by climate change. We're already doing it. We relocated a town in Louisiana that became uninhabitable because the sea levels rose. And we know that town is not alone. That's playing out in coastal areas around the country. The question is, do you leave that town on its own to fend for itself? Or do you come together as a country and say, we need to protect our people from climate change? Part of my plan is literally called "move people to higher ground," because that's what we need to do. And that's literal and figurative. Here in California, it's forest fires and forest management. On nuclear power, I agree with the research. We need to have everything on the table in a crisis situation, which this is. Other countries have had success with nuclear power. And the next generation thorium reactors have a wealth of potential. Thorium is not radioactive the way uranium is. It doesn't last as long. And you can't make a weapon out of it. If we're going to innovate our way out of this, as... ALBERTA: Thank you, Mr. Yang. YANG: ... Elizabeth is saying, then we have to have nuclear on the table. ALBERTA: Thank you, Mr. Yang. The last word climate to you, Mr. Steyer. STEYER: Look, the point about nuclear power is, it's not at the stage in the United States where it's competitive on price. It has a lot of risks to it in terms of disasters. And we have no ability to store the toxins that come out of it and last 100,000 years. We actually have the technology that we need. It's called wind and solar and batteries. So, in fact, what we need to do, we can do. We've got to stop taking a look at this as something that we can't do, because we can do this, and we can do it in a way that creates, rebuilds this country on an accelerated basis, creates millions of union jobs, and we come at it from the standpoint of environmental justice. This is our greatest opportunity to reinvent this country, to actually take on the biggest challenge in history and succeed together. You want to pull the country together with all this partisanship? Let's take on the biggest challenge in history and succeed together as a nation. That's what pulls people together. ALBERTA: Thank you, Mr. Steyer. Amna? (APPLAUSE) NAWAZ: Thanks, Tim. Vice President Biden, you've been reassuring voters that things will return to normal once President Trump leaves office, that Republicans will have what you call an epiphany and come to the table to work with a Biden administration. But given everything that you have seen from current Republicans, what evidence is there that things will change? BIDEN: Look, I didn't say return to normal. Normal's not enough. Normal -- in fact, we have to move beyond normal, whether it's health care, the environment, whatever it is. We have to build on what we had started in our administration, and that's been interrupted very badly, number one. Number two, with Trump out of the way, it's not going to change things in a fundamental way. But what it will do is it will mean that we're in a position where he's not going to be able to intimidate the base, his base is not going to be able to intimidate those half a dozen Republicans we may need in other things. I refuse to accept the notion, as some on this stage do, that we can never, never get to a place where we have cooperation again. If that's the case, we're dead as a country. We need to be able to reach a consensus. And if anyone has reason to be angry with the Republicans and not want to cooperate it's me, the way they've attacked me, my son, and my family. I have no -- no -- no love. (APPLAUSE) But the fact is, we have to -- we have to be able to get things done. And when we can't convince them, we go out and beat them like we did in the 2018 election in red states and in purple states. (APPLAUSE) NAWAZ: Thank you, Mr. Biden. Mr. Yang, I want to switch topics to you, Mr. Yang, a new question. The Democratic Party relies on black, Hispanic, and Asian voters, but you are the only candidate of color on the stage tonight, and the entire field remains overwhelmingly white. What message do you think this sends to voters of color? YANG: It's both an honor and disappointment to be the lone candidate of color on the stage tonight. I miss Kamala, I miss Cory, though I think Cory will be back. (APPLAUSE) I grew up the son of immigrants, and I had many racial epithets used against me as a kid. But black and Latinos have something much more powerful working against them than words. They have numbers. The average net worth of a black household is only 10 percent that of a white household. For Latinos, it's 12 percent. If you're a black woman, you're 320 percent more likely to die from complications in childbirth. These are the numbers that define race in our country. And the question is, why am I the lone candidate of color on this stage? Fewer than 5 percent of Americans donate to political campaigns. You know what you need to donate to political campaigns? Disposable income. (APPLAUSE) The way that we fix it -- the way we fix this is we take Martin Luther King's message of a guaranteed minimum income, a freedom dividend of $1,000 a month for all Americans. I guarantee, if we had a freedom dividend of $1,000 a month, I would not be the only candidate of color on this stage tonight. (APPLAUSE) NAWAZ: Thank you, Mr. Yang. Senator Sanders, I do want to put the same question to you, Senator Sanders. What message do you think... SANDERS: I will answer that question, but I wanted to get back to the issue of climate change for a moment, because I do believe this is the existential issue. NAWAZ: Senator, with all respect, this question is about race. Can you answer the question as it was asked? (APPLAUSE) SANDERS: I certainly can. Because people of color, in fact, are going to be the people suffering most if we do not deal with climate change. (APPLAUSE) And by the way, we have an obligation up here, if there are not any of our African-American brothers and sisters up here, to speak about an economy in which African-Americans are exploited, where black women die three times at higher rates than white women, where we have a criminal justice system which is racist and broken, disproportionately made up of African-Americans and Latinos and Native Americans who are in jail. So we need an economy that focuses on the needs of oppressed, exploited people, and that is the African-American community. NAWAZ: Thank you, Senator. Yamiche? ALCINDOR: Thank you, Amna. Senator Klobuchar, here in California, people who identify as Hispanic, black, Asian, or multiracial represent a majority of the population, outnumbering white residents. The United States is expected to be majority nonwhite within a generation. What do you say to white Americans who are uncomfortable with the idea of becoming a racial minority, even if you don't share their concerns? KLOBUCHAR: I say this is America. You're looking at it. And we are not going to be able to succeed in the world if we do not invite everyone to be part of our economy. Our Constitution says that we strive for a more perfect union. Well, that's what we are doing right now. And to me, that means, one, that everyone can vote, and that includes our communities of color. This action that's been taken by this president and his people and his governors all over the country is wrong. They have made it harder for African-Americans to vote, as one court said, discriminated with surgical precision. What would I do? As one of the leaders on voting in the U.S. Senate, one, stop the purging. As Stacey Abrams said, you know, you do not stop having your right to assemble if you don't go to a meeting for a year. Because you don't go to a church or a synagogue or a mosque for three months, you don't lose your right to worship. You shouldn't lose your right to vote. (APPLAUSE) I would pass as president my bill to register every kid in this country when they turn 18 to vote. That would make all of these discriminatory actions in these states go away. And I would stop the gerrymandering, in addition to the agenda of economic opportunity, because as Martin Luther King said, what good is it to integrate a lunch counter if you can't afford a hamburger? (APPLAUSE) ALCINDOR: Thank you, Senator. Let's now turn to the issue of foreign policy and the Middle East. Senator Sanders, Secretary of State Mike Pompeo recently declared that the United States believes Israeli settlements in the West Bank do not violate international law. That broke decades-long U.S. precedent. How would you respond to Israeli expansion of settlements? Would you link that to foreign aid to Israel? SANDERS: Israel has -- and I say this as somebody who lived in Israel as a kid, proudly Jewish -- Israel has the right not only to exist, but to exist in peace and security. But what -- but what U.S. foreign policy must be about is not just being pro-Israel. We must be pro-Palestinian, as well. (APPLAUSE) And whether, in my view -- we must understand that right now in Israel we have leadership under Netanyahu, who has recently, as you know, been indicted for bribery, who, in my view, is a racist -- what we need is a level playing field in terms of the Middle East, which addresses the terrible crisis in Gaza, where 60 percent or 70 percent of the young people are unemployed. So what my foreign policy will be about is human rights, is democracy, is bringing people together in a peaceful way, trying to negotiate agreements, not endless wars with trillions of dollars of expenses. ALCINDOR: Thank you, Senator. Mayor Buttigieg? BUTTIGIEG: What we are seeing in the Middle East and around the world are the consequences of this president's failure, this president's refusal to lead. It's particularly disturbing in the case of Israel because he has infused domestic politics, making U.S. foreign policy choices in order to effectively interfere in Israeli domestic politics, acting as though that somehow makes him pro-Israel and pro-Jewish, while welcoming white nationalists into the White House. But it's not only in the Middle East that we see the consequences of the disappearance of U.S. leadership. We see among our allies and among our adversaries case after case where the world is making plans on what to do, ignoring the United States, because we're no longer considered reliable. It's not just the mockery at a cocktail party on the sidelines of a conference. It's the looks on the faces of the leaders at the U.N. as they looked at the United States president with a mixture of contempt and pity. As an American, I never again want to see the American president looked at that way by the leaders of the world. The world needs America right now. But it can't be just any America. It has to be one that is actually living up to the values that make us who we are: supporting peace, supporting democracy, supporting human rights, and supporting stability around the world. (APPLAUSE) ALCINDOR: Thank you, Mayor Buttigieg. Senator Warren, President Obama pledged to close the detention camp at Guantanamo Bay but could not. Forty prisoners remain there. Last year, U.S. taxpayers paid $540 million to keep Guantanamo open. Would you pledge to finally close the detention facility? And if elected, how will you do it? WARREN: Yes. It is time to close this detention facility. It not only costs us money, it is an international embarrassment. We have to be an America that lives our values every single day. We can't be an America that stands up and asks people to fight alongside us, as we did with the Kurds in fighting ISIS, and then turn around in the blink of a tweet and say that we're turning our backs on the people who stood beside us. After that, who wants to be an ally of the United States? We have to be an America that understands the difference and recognizes the difference between our allies, the people who will work alongside us, and the dictators who would do us harm. And we need to treat our allies better than we treat the dictators. That needs to be our job as an America. (APPLAUSE) We have -- we have the finest military on Earth. All three of my brothers served. And we have people on this stage who have served, and I am deeply grateful for that. Our military is strong and important, but we need to be an America that relies on our State Department, that relies on diplomacy, that relies on our economic power and that relies on working together with the rest of the world to build a world that is sustainable environmentally and economically for everyone. ALCINDOR: Thank you. Thank you, Senator Warren. Vice President Biden, why couldn't you close Guantanamo Bay? Why couldn't the Obama administration close Guantanamo Bay? BIDEN: We attempted to close Guantanamo Bay, but you have to have congressional authority to do it. They've kept it open. And the fact is that we, in fact, think it's greatest -- it is an advertisement for creating terror. Look, what we have done around the world in terms of keeping Guantanamo open or what Trump has done by no longer being an honest broker in Israel, there's no solution for Israel other than a two-state solution. It does not exist. It's not possible to have a Jewish state in the Middle East without there being a two-state solution. And he has played to all the same fears and all the prejudices that exist in this country and in Israel. Bibi Netanyahu and I know one another well. He knows that I think what he's doing is outrageous. What we do is, we have to put pressure constantly on the Israelis to move to a two-state solution, not withdraw physical aid from them in terms of their security. And lastly, I think that... ALCINDOR: Thank you, Vice President Biden. BIDEN: ... Senator Warren is correct. We have led by not the example of our power, but the power of our example. And the example we're demonstrating now is horrible. It's hurting us badly. ALCINDOR: Thank you, Vice President Biden. Judy? (APPLAUSE) WOODRUFF: I want to turn to another part of the world, and that's China. Mayor Buttigieg, you have said that you think China presents more of a challenge than do your fellow candidates believe. The U.S. clearly wants China's cooperation on human rights, on climate change, on North Korea, on terrorism. And yet Americans are appalled by China's record on human rights, including the detention of over a million Muslim Uighurs. Should the U.S., is my question, do more than protest and issue sanctions? Should the U.S., for example, boycott the 2022 Beijing Olympics? BUTTIGIEG: I think that any tool ought to be on the table, especially diplomatic, economic, and social tools, like what you're describing. Look, for the president to let it be known that his silence, whether it's on the rounding up of Muslim Uighurs in Xinjiang, putting them into camps, or the aspirations of the people of Hong Kong for democracy, for him to let China know that his silence can be purchased is trashing American values. The reality is that there's a lot more to the relationship with China than who's selling more dishwashers. Yes, we need a much smarter trade policy. We also have to acknowledge what's going on over there: the use of technology for the perfection of dictatorship. That is going to require a stronger than ever response from the U.S. in defense of democracy. But when folks out there standing up for democracy hear not a peep from the president of the United States, what message is that sending to the Chinese Communist Party? The message I will send is that if they perpetrate a repeat of anything like Tiananmen Square, when it comes to Hong Kong, they will be isolated from the free world, and we will lead that isolation diplomatically and economically. (APPLAUSE) WOODRUFF: Mr. Steyer, many Americans have been moved in the last months by the protests of the people of Hong Kong. It is Chinese territory, but what could you, would you do as president if the Chinese government moved in militarily? STEYER: Look, there is a temptation, particularly for this president, to try and answer that on a bilateral -- in a bilateral way. The way the United States should be reacting in Hong Kong is by gathering our coalition of democracy- and freedom-loving partners and allies to push back. In fact, when we're making moral statements around the world, it should not be us threatening and trying to be the world's policeman. It should be us leading on a value-driven basis with the other people who share our values and want to change the world. We actually can't isolate ourselves from China. In fact, we have to work with them as a frenemy. People who disturb us, who we disagree with, but who, in effect, we are linked to in a world that is ever getting closer. And, in fact, if we are going to treat climate as the threat that it is, we are going to have to partner with the Chinese. They are going to have to come along with us. They're going to have to trust us. And together we're going to have to solve this problem. WOODRUFF: Thank you, Mr. Steyer. STEYER: So the ability to say what's off the table -- we need a good relationship with them and we're going to have to work with them going forward under all circumstances. WOODRUFF: Thank you, Mr. Steyer. Vice President Biden, on China, we now know that China is engaged in an unprecedented military build-up. They have just launched a new aircraft carrier. There are new signs of their disturbing espionage campaign here inside the United States. There are a number of disturbing signs from the Chinese. National security scholars have long warned about the historical precedent that when there's a ruling power and a rising power, there's likely to be a war. Is the U.S. on a collision course with China? BIDEN: It's not... WOODRUFF: What steps could you take as president? BIDEN: It's on a collision course with China, but not for war. What we have to make clear is that we, in fact, are not going to abide by what they've done. A million Uighurs, as you pointed out, Muslims, are in concentration camps. That's where they are right now. They're being abused. They're in concentration camps. And what we started in our administration that Trump stopped, we should be moving 60 percent of our sea power to that area of the world to let, in fact, the Chinese understand that they're not going to go any further. We are going to be there to protect other folks. Secondly, we, in fact, should make sure that we begin to rebuild our alliances, which Trump has demolished, with Japan and South Korea, Australia and all -- and Indonesia. We, in fact, need to have allies who understand that we're going to stop the Chinese from their actions. We should be going to the U.N. immediately and sought sanctions against them in the United Nations for what they did. We have to be firm. We don't have to go to war. But we have to make it clear, this is as far as you go, China. And in terms of their military build-up, it's real. But it would take them about 17 years to build up to where we are. We're not looking for a war. But we've got to make clear, we are a Pacific power and we are not going to back away. WOODRUFF: Mr. Yang and then Senator Klobuchar. (APPLAUSE) YANG: I have family in Hong Kong. I spent four months there and seeing what's happening on the streets. It's shocking. They banned face masks in Hong Kong. Why? Because they have AI technology that now is using facial recognition to identify protesters if they so much as do anything on the street so they can follow up with them and detain them later. This is the rivalry that we have to win where China is concerned. They're in the process of leapfrogging us in AI because they have more data than we do and their government is subsidizing it to the tune of tens of billions of dollars. I have sat with our leading technologists and they say they cannot match the Chinese resources. China just produced its first major smartphone that does not have Google apps and it is now trying to export its technology to the rest of the world. What we have to do is build an international coalition to set technology standards, and then you can bring the Chinese to the table in a very real way, because this is their top priority, and this is where we need to outcompete them and win. WOODRUFF: Senator Klobuchar? (APPLAUSE) KLOBUCHAR: When it comes to foreign policy, I think we need to keep our promises and keep our threats. And this president has done neither. In a country like China, their leaders, they watch that and they know. He has stood with dictators over innocents. He has stood with tyrants over free leaders. He does it all the time. And I have a little different take than some of my colleagues when it comes to what happened at that conference with NATO. Yeah, they were making fun of them, some of the foreign leaders. I've heard senators make more fun of other senators than that. The point of it was that he couldn't even tolerate it. He is so thin-skinned that he walked. He quit. America doesn't quit. So if we want to send a message to the Chinese, we stand with our allies. We stand with them firmly. We have a very clear and coherent foreign policy when it comes to human rights. Check out my website, amyklobuchar.com. I have the five R's of our foreign policy, about reasserting our values, rejoining international agreements, like the Iranian nuclear agreement. But it all comes down to one R: returning to sanity. (APPLAUSE) WOODRUFF: Mayor Buttigieg, and then we're going to take a break. BUTTIGIEG: I'm actually not worried about the president's bad sense of humor when it comes to being made fun of. I'm worried about the fact that he is echoing the vocabulary of dictators around the world. When the American president refers to unfavorable press coverage as the product of the "enemy of the people," democracy around the world gets weaker. Freedom of the press not just here at home but around the world gets weaker. It's one more reminder of what is at stake, not just here at home, but for world history in the imperative that we win this election. KLOBUCHAR: Could I respond? BUTTIGIEG: This is our chance. WOODRUFF: Very brief. Very brief. KLOBUCHAR: OK. I just want to make very clear, Mayor, that the freedom of the press is deep in my heart. My dad was a newspaperman. And I am the one that asked every attorney general candidate we've had under Donald Trump, both of whom I opposed, about their respect for the First Amendment. And they have refused, they have refused to follow the rules that Attorney General Holder put in place when it came to protecting our journalists. They would not commit that they wouldn't put a journalist in jail for doing their job. So this is not just talking points to me. This is the real world. And I think that experience that I will bring to the White House, with protecting the First Amendment, is worth more than any talking points. (APPLAUSE) WOODRUFF: We are going to take a short break, and we will be -- we'll be right back with more questions. (COMMERCIAL BREAK) WOODRUFF: Welcome back to the PBS NewsHour-Politico Democratic presidential debate. I'm Judy Woodruff, joined by my PBS NewsHour colleagues, Amna Nawaz and Yamiche Alcindor, by Tim Alberta of Politico. Now let's turn to the next question from Tim. ALBERTA: Thank you, Judy. Candidates, let's make things interesting. Former President Obama said this week when asked who should be running countries that if women were in charge, you'd see a significant improvement on just about everything. (APPLAUSE) He also said, quote, "If you look at the world and look at the problems, it's usually old people, usually old men, not getting out of the way." (APPLAUSE) Senator Sanders, you are the oldest candidate on stage this evening. SANDERS: And I'm white, as well. Yes. ALBERTA: How do you respond to what the former president had to say? SANDERS: Well, I got a lot of respect for Barack Obama. I think I disagree with him on this one. Maybe a little self-serving, but I do disagree. Here is the issue. The issue is where power resides in America, and it's not white or black or male or female. We are living in a nation increasingly becoming an oligarchy, where you have a handful of billionaires who spend hundreds of millions of dollars buying elections and politicians. You have more income and wealth inequality today than at any time since the 1920s. We are the only major country on Earth not to guarantee health care for all people, which is why we need Medicare for all. We are facing an existential crisis of climate change. The issue is not old or young, male or female. The issue is working people standing up, taking on the billionaire class, and creating a government and economy that works for all, not just the 1 percent. ALBERTA: Thank you, Senator Sanders. Vice President Biden, I'm going to guess that President Obama did not clear that remark through your campaign ahead of time. BIDEN: And I'm going to guess... ALBERTA: What do you say to it? BIDEN: And I'm going to guess he wasn't talking about me, either. MORE XXX about me, either. ALBERTA: OK. BIDEN: Number one. Look, I'm running -- I'm running because I've been around, on my experience. With experience hopefully comes judgment and a little bit of wisdom. The fact is that we're in a position now, the next president of the United States is going to inherit two things, an economy that is out of kilter and a domestic policy that needs to be -- where we have to unite America. And a foreign policy that requires somebody to be able to on day one stand up, look out, the entire world know who that person is, know what they stand for, and know they know them. And that's what -- that's the reason I'm running. I have more experience in doing that than anybody on this stage. ALBERTA: Just to follow up, Vice President Biden, if elected, if elected you would turn 82 at the end of your first term. You'd be the oldest president in American history. BIDEN: More like Winston Churchill. ALBERTA: Are you willing -- are you willing to commit -- American history. BIDEN: Oh, American history. ALBERTA: Yes. Are you... BIDEN: I was joking. That was a joke. ALBERTA: OK. (LAUGHTER) Appreciate it. BIDEN: Politico doesn't have much of a sense of humor. ALBERTA: Oh, we've got a great sense of humor. They wouldn't have put me on stage otherwise. Are you willing to commit tonight to running for a second term if you're elected next November? BIDEN: No, I'm not willing to commit one way or another. Here's the deal. I'm not even elected one term yet, and let's see where we are. Let's see what happens. (APPLAUSE) But it's a nice thought. ALBERTA: Senator Klobuchar, you had your hand raised. KLOBUCHAR: Thank you for asking a woman this question. I think... (APPLAUSE) First of all, we have not had enough women in our government. When I was on Trevor Noah's show once, I explained how in the history of the Senate, there was something like 2,000 men and only 50 women in the whole history. And he said if a nightclub had numbers that bad, they would shut it down. (LAUGHTER) However, it is not just about numbers. It's about what you get done. And that is my argument. If you look at the poll -- the state that knows me best, and that is the state of Minnesota, it showed in the state that Hillary had her lowest margin of victory, it showed that I'd beat Donald Trump by 18 points. I beat him with men more than anyone on this stage. So I think what matters in this election is, can you bring in those rural and suburban areas, particularly in the Midwest? And number two, what will you do when you get there? And I am someone that has passed over 100 bills, with men and women, with Republicans and with Democrats, including changing the sexual harassment laws for the United States Congress, a bill I led so taxpayers are no longer going to have to pay for people that harass other people. ALBERTA: Senator Warren... KLOBUCHAR: I have passed a law for drug shortages. I have done work in our rural areas. I think that's what most matters to people. I would be so proud to be the first woman president. But mostly I want to be a president that gets things done and improves people's lives. ALBERTA: Thank you, Senator Klobuchar. (APPLAUSE) Senator Warren, you would be the oldest president ever inaugurated. I'd like you to weigh in, as well. WARREN: I'd also be the youngest woman ever inaugurated. (LAUGHTER) (APPLAUSE) I believe that President Obama was talking about who has power in America, whose voices get heard. I believe he's talking about women and people of color and trans people and people whose voices just so often get shoved out. And for me, the best way to understand that is to look at how people are running their campaigns in 2020. You know, I made the decision when I decided to run not to do business as usual. And now I'm proud to have been in 100,000 selfies. That's 100,000 hugs and handshakes and stories, stories from people who are struggling with student loan debt, stories from people who can't pay their medical bills, stories from people who can't find childcare. Now, most of the people on this stage run a traditional campaign. And that means going back and forth from coast to coast to rich people and people who can put up $5,000 bucks or more in order to have a picture taken, in order to have a conversation, and in order maybe to be considered to be an ambassador. ALBERTA: Thank you, Senator Warren. WARREN: Those selfies -- no, I want to finish this. Those selfies cost nobody anything. And I get it. In a democracy, we all have a lot of different points of view. And everybody gets one vote. But here's the thing. People who can put down $5,000 to have a picture taken don't have the same priorities as people who are struggling with student loan debt or who are struggling to pay off medical debt. I want -- I'm running a campaign where people whose voices get heard. We can't have... ALBERTA: Thank you, Senator Warren. We're... WARREN: We can't have people who can put down $5,000 for a check drown out the voices of everyone else. ALBERTA: Thank you, Senator Warren. WARREN: They don't in my campaign, and they won't in my White House. ALBERTA: Mayor Buttigieg -- Mayor Buttigieg, you had your hand raised. (APPLAUSE) BUTTIGIEG: Well, can't help but feel that might have been directed at me. And here is the thing. We're in the fight of our lives right now. Donald Trump and his allies have made it abundantly clear that they will stop at nothing, not even foreign interference to hold onto power. They've already put together more than $300 million. This is our chance. This is our only chance to defeat Donald Trump. And we shouldn't try to do it with one hand tied behind our back. The way we're going to win is to bring everybody to our side in this fight. If that means that you're a grad student digging deep to go online to peteforamerica.com and chip in $10 bucks, that's great. And if you can drop $1,000 without blinking, that's great, too. We need everybody's help in this fight. I'm not going to turn away anyone who wants to help us defeat Donald Trump. We need Democrats who've been with us all along, yes, but we also need independents worried about the direction of the country. If you're a Republican disgusted with what's going on in your own party, we're not going to agree on everything, but we need you in this fight, and I will welcome you to our side. ALBERTA: Thank you, Mr. Mayor. (APPLAUSE) Senator Warren, 45 seconds to respond. WARREN: So the mayor just recently had a fundraiser that was held in a wine cave full of crystals and served $900-a-bottle wine. Think about who comes to that. He had promised that every fundraiser he would do would be open door, but this one was closed door. We made the decision many years ago that rich people in smoke-filled rooms would not pick the next president of the United States. (APPLAUSE) Billionaires in wine caves should not pick the next president of the United States. ALBERTA: Mr. Mayor, your response? BUTTIGIEG: You know, according to Forbes magazine, I am literally the only person on this stage who is not a millionaire or a billionaire. (APPLAUSE) So if -- this is important. This is the problem with issuing purity tests you cannot yourself pass. (APPLAUSE) If I pledge -- if I pledge never to be in the company of a progressive Democratic donor, I couldn't be up here. Senator, your net worth is 100 times mine. Now, supposing that you went home feeling the holiday spirit -- I know this isn't likely, but stay with me -- and decided to go onto peteforamerica.com and gave the maximum allowable by law, $2,800, would that pollute my campaign because it came from a wealthy person? No, I would be glad to have that support. We need the support from everybody who is committed to helping us defeat Donald Trump. (APPLAUSE) ALBERTA: We would like to bring everyone, but obviously, Senator Warren, would like to give you a chance to respond. WARREN: I do not sell access to my time. I don't do call time with millionaires and billionaires. BUTTIGIEG: Hold on a second. Sorry, as of when, Senator? WARREN: I don't meet -- I don't meet behind closed doors with big dollar donors. And, look, I have taken one that ought to be an easy step for everyone here. I've said to anyone who wants to donate to me, if you want to donate to me, that's fine, but don't come around later expecting to be named ambassador, because that's what goes on in these high-dollar fundraisers. I said no, and I asked everybody on this stage to join me. This ought to be an easy step. And here's the problem. If you can't stand up and take the steps that are relatively easy, can't stand up to the wealthy and well connected when it's relatively easy when you're a candidate, then how can the American people believe you're going to stand up to the wealthy and well-connected when you're president and it's really hard? (APPLAUSE) KLOBUCHAR: Judy -- Judy... BUTTIGIEG: Senator, Senator, I've got to respond. ALBERTA: Mr. Mayor, we're going to give you one more chance to respond. BUTTIGIEG: First of all, if you can't say no to a donor, then you have no business running for office in the first place. But also, Senator, your presidential campaign right now as we speak is funded in part by money you transferred, having raised it at those exact same big-ticket fundraisers you now denounce. Did it corrupt you, Senator? Of course not. So to denounce the same kind of fundraising guidelines that President Obama went by, that Speaker Pelosi goes by, that you yourself went by until not long ago, in order to build the Democratic Party and build a campaign ready for the fight of our lives, these purity tests shrink the stakes of the most important election... (CROSSTALK) ALBERTA: We'd like to bring everyone in. We'd like to bring everyone in. (CROSSTALK) ALBERTA: But, Senator Klobuchar, had your hand up first. We'd like to call on you. (CROSSTALK) KLOBUCHAR: I did not come here to listen to this argument. I came here to make a case for progress. And I have never even been to a wine cave. I've been to the wind cave in South Dakota, which I suggest you go to. So what is making a case for progress about? That is what unites us up here instead of what divides us, which is campaign finance reform. That means passing a constitutional amendment to overturn Citizens United. It means making the first bill we pass when I am president will be H.R. 1, which is the ethics reform passed in the House, which is currently sitting on Mitch McConnell's desk, along with 400 bills. And if you don't think we can get this done, well, we can, but only if we win this election big. ALBERTA: Thank you, Senator. KLOBUCHAR: Not by arguing with each other, but by finding what unites us and getting this done. (APPLAUSE) I came to make a case for progress. ALBERTA: Thank you, Senator Klobuchar. Senator Sanders? SANDERS: I am -- I am rather proud, maybe, I don't know, the only candidate up here that doesn't have any billionaire contributions. But you know what I do have? We have received more contributions from more individuals than any candidate in the history of the United States of America at this point in an election, averaging $18 a piece. Now, there's a real competition going on up here. My good friend, Joe, and he is a good friend, he's received contributions from 44 billionaires. Pete, on the other hand, he's trailing, Pete. You only got 39 billionaires contributing. So, Pete, we look forward to you. I know you're an energetic guy and a competitive guy to see if you can take on Joe on that issue. But what is not -- what is not a laughing matter, my friends, this is why three people own more wealth than the bottom half. This is why Amazon and other major corporations pay zero in federal taxes. We need to get money out of politics. We should run our campaigns on that basis. ALBERTA: Thank you, Senator. (APPLAUSE) Vice President Biden, 45 seconds to respond. BIDEN: My average contributions is $43, number one. That's number one. Number two, the idea that the senator suggested, that I am in the pocket of billionaires, when, in fact, they oppose everything that I have ever done and continue to do, I have made sure from the very beginning every one of my fundraisers is open to the press, every single solitary one. Not one single time, period. And I have made sure that you know exactly where all the -- and the largest contribution I have accepted is $2,800, which is allowed under law. And I'm the first person to introduce the constitutional amendment to make sure that there is no -- all public funding of elections. End all private funding. And we all should take a commitment, make a commitment to that right now on this stage. In the meantime, you got to fund a campaign, and we, in fact, have funded a campaign, average contribution $43. ALBERTA: Thank you, Vice President. Mr. Steyer, I would like to bring you in. STEYER: Listen, I am running because this government is broken, because it's purchased by corporations. And I've spent 10 years fighting those corporations and beating them and building grassroots organizations to push power down to the people. That's what I've been doing for a decade. But let me say this. There's someone who is loving this conversation, and his name is Donald Trump. BIDEN: That's right. STEYER: We know how he's going to run. He's told us last week he looked at a group of Americans and said, "I don't like you. You don't like me. It doesn't matter. You're going to support me because the Democrats will destroy the economy in 15 minutes." We need to go after this guy. He's a different breed of cat, and we need to beat him. And we need to talk about prosperity. And I spent 25 years building a business. We're going to have to take him on, on the economy, not have these kinds of conversations and tear each other down, but actually go after... ALBERTA: Thank you, Mr. Steyer. STEYER: ... this corrupt president and beat him on the economy where he thinks he's king and where, in fact, he's a fraud and a failure. ALBERTA: Thank you, Mr. Steyer. We're going to end it there. (APPLAUSE) Amna? NAWAZ: Thanks, Tim. I want to turn now to an issue that's been in the headlines quite a bit, and that is immigration. Mr. Yang, we have a question here from a professor right here at Loyola, Marymount. There are nearly 200,000 DACA recipients, so-called Dreamers, in the state of California, more than any other state, including several students right here at LMU. If you win and you reinstate DACA through executive action, another president could just overturn it again. So will you move on a permanent legislative fix for Dreamers in your first 100 days, if elected? YANG: Of course I would. I'm the son of immigrants myself, and I know that Dreamers are essentially Americans in everything but this legal classification. (APPLAUSE) I just want to return to this conversation, because I think it's core. Our country is deeply misogynist, and most all of us know that. Money and men are tied together. That's where I thought Elizabeth was taking the conversation. The fact is, strong societies would elect more female leaders. Strong men treat women well for the same reasons. (APPLAUSE) I'm on the record saying that you need both strong men and female leaders in government, because the fact is, if you get too many men alone and leave us alone for a while, we kind of become morons. (LAUGHTER) (APPLAUSE) So it's related to our campaign finance rules, because right now the fact is we operate in a fundamentally anti-woman marketplace. And that includes the marketplace for politicians. If we were to put 100 democracy dollars into the hands of every American voter, instead of 5 percent contributing, you'd see that rate skyrocket to 50 percent or 60 percent, and you'd have many, many more women who would run for office because they don't have to go shake the money tree in the wine cave. (LAUGHTER) NAWAZ: Thank you, Mr. Yang. I do... KLOBUCHAR: Could I address... NAWAZ: I'd like to follow up. The question, again, Mr. Yang, was about Dreamers. KLOBUCHAR: Could I address immigration reform? NAWAZ: You pledged to move -- you pledged to move on a permanent legislative fix in your first 100 days. Dreamers say that they are frustrated by Democrats' failure to prioritize their status in deal after deal. So why should Dreamers trust Democrats now? YANG: I believe everyone on this stage would do the right thing by Dreamers in the first 100 days. I would make it a top priority. I'm the son of immigrants myself. The fact is, almost half of Fortune 500 companies were started by an immigrant or children of immigrants. Immigrants make our country stronger and more dynamic. (APPLAUSE) And immigrants are being scapegoated for issues they have absolutely nothing to do with. If you go to the factory in Michigan, it's not wall-to-wall immigrants. It's wall-to-wall robot arms and machines. We have to send the opposite message of this administration. And as your president, I think I could send a very clear message, where if you are considering immigrating to this country and I am the president, you would realize my son or daughter can become president of the United States. That's the opposite of the current administration, and that's the message I would love to send to the world. NAWAZ: Thank you, Mr. Yang. (APPLAUSE) Senator Sanders, a related question to you. SANDERS: Donald Trump... NAWAZ: Actually, Senator Sanders -- Senator Sanders, I have a new question for you. You can respond to Mr. Yang's comments, as well. SANDERS: I can't respond to the immigration question? NAWAZ: This is related, sir. But there are estimated to be as many as 12 million undocumented immigrants in the U.S., more than 2 million right here in California. If you have a chance to forge a bipartisan immigration reform plan, would you insist on a path to citizenship for all 12 million or just a segment of that population? SANDERS: This is what I would do. Day one, executive order, restore the legal status of 1.8 million young people in the DACA program. (APPLAUSE) Day one, we change border policy so that federal agents will never snatch babies from the arms of their mothers. (APPLAUSE) Day one, day one, we introduce bipartisan legislation, which will, in fact, be comprehensive, which will result in a path toward citizenship for all of the 11 million who are undocumented. That is what the people of our country want. (APPLAUSE) Trump thinks mistakenly that he is going to win re-election by dividing us up. We are going to win this election by bringing our people together -- black and white and Latino, Native American, Asian American. That's what this campaign is about. That's what America must be about. (APPLAUSE) NAWAZ: Senator Klobuchar, you had your hand up. KLOBUCHAR: Thank you. I started my day-to-day with a group of immigrants who were there talking to me about housing. And I thought about this president and what he's done. He has used our immigrants as political pawns. Every single day, he tries to draw a wedge. I will be a different president. My view on this comes from experience. When I got to the Senate, Senator Kennedy asked me to be one of the two new senators that was in the group to work on the immigration reform package. We got so close to passing that. I voted for it. Not everyone did. But most of the Democrats did. Then I was on the Judiciary Committee when President Obama was president. And we worked very hard on that immigration reform. We actually passed that with Republican votes. Then I was in the small group that worked on the compromise on the Dreamers that would have solved that problem. We didn't get that done because this president gut-punched us. NAWAZ: Thank you, Senator. KLOBUCHAR: I will take my views. I will take this experience. I will get this done because immigrants don't diminish America. They are America. NAWAZ: Thank you, Senator. Mr. Steyer, briefly, your response? STEYER: Listen, I think it's important to note that this president is not against immigration. He's against immigration by nonwhite people. WARREN: Yes. (APPLAUSE) STEYER: This is his attempt to divide us, as Senator Sanders said, on race. And that's what he's been doing since the very first day he started running for president. He's been vilifying non-white people. He's been trying to inflame his base and scare them that if, in fact, white people lose control of this country, that they're going to lose control of their lives. And as somebody who lives in a majority-minority state, which is California, what he's doing is so wrong on so many different levels. I agree with Senator Sanders. We have to reframe this argument completely. We have to go back to the idea that every American is worth being a full human being on every right. This is a racial argument by a racist president who's trying to divide us and who's vilifying people. It's absolutely wrong. And it's led him to break the laws of humanity in our name. NAWAZ: Thank you, Mr. Steyer. (APPLAUSE) Mayor Buttigieg, a new question to you, Mr. Mayor. You said last month that the U.S. owes compensation to children separated from their families at the southern border. The consensus among child welfare experts is that those thousands of children will likely suffer lifelong trauma as a result of that separation. Are you committing as president to financial compensation for those thousands of children? BUTTIGIEG: Yes, and they should have a fast track to citizenship, because what the United States did under this president to them was wrong. We have a moral obligation to make right what was broken. And on the larger issue of immigration, my understanding of this issue isn't theoretical. It's not something I formed in committee rooms in Washington. It begins with the fact that my household, my family, came from abroad. My father immigrated to this country and became a U.S. citizen. It comes from the fact that I'm the mayor of a city where neighborhoods that were left for dying are now coming back to life, largely because of the contributions mainly of Latino immigrants. And I've seen those same neighborhoods shut down, families huddling in church, panicking just because of the rumor of an ICE raid. That did not make our country safer. KLOBUCHAR: Could I respond? BUTTIGIEG: I had to look into the eyes of an 8-year-old boy whose father was deported, even though he had nothing so much as a traffic ticket against his name, and try to think of something to tell that boy because I couldn't tell him what he most wanted to hear, which is just that he was going to have his dad back. How could harming that young man possibly make America safer? NAWAZ: Mr. Mayor, just... BUTTIGIEG: When I am president, based on those experiences, I will make sure that this is a country of laws and of values. And that means not only ending these unspeakable, cruel practices at the border, but finally and truly fixing the immigration system that has needed a full overhaul since the 1980s. NAWAZ: Mr. Mayor... BUTTIGIEG: We cannot wait 4 years, 10 years. We cannot wait anymore to do something about this. NAWAZ: Thank you, Mr. Mayor. Just to follow up... (APPLAUSE) ... since you do support compensation for those families, should the U.S. also compensate descendants of enslaved people? Do you support reparations for African-Americans? BUTTIGIEG: I support H.R. 40, which is the bill that has been proposed in Congress to establish a commission to look at reparations. But we shouldn't wait for that commission to do its work to do things that are reparative. Remember, we're not talking about a gift to anybody. We're talking about mending what was broken. We're talking about the generational theft of the wealth of generations of African-Americans. And just crossing out a racist policy and replacing it with a neutral one is not enough to deliver equality. Harms compound, just like a dollar saved in its value compounds over time. So does the value of a dollars stolen. And that is why the United States must act immediately with investments in minority-owned businesses, with investments in health equity, with investments in HBCUs, and on the longer term look at reparations so that we can mend what has been broken. NAWAZ: Vice President Biden, do you support reparations? (APPLAUSE) BIDEN: Look, let me -- since I haven't spoken on this, I've got a chance. Number one, the reason we're the country we are is because of immigration. We've been able to cherry pick the best from every single continent. The people who come here have determination, resilience. They are ready to stand up and work like the devil. We have 24 out of every 100 children in our schools today is Hispanic. The idea that we are going to walk away and not provide every opportunity for them is not only stupid and immoral, but it's bad for America. They are the future of America and we should invest in them. Everybody will benefit from it, every single American. And you should get used to it. This is a nation of immigrants. That's who we are. That's why we're who we are. That's what makes us different. And we should invest in them. (APPLAUSE) NAWAZ: Thank you, Mr. Biden. Senator Klobuchar, you had your hand up. KLOBUCHAR: Well, I was -- I was harkening back. I made my case on immigration to what the mayor said about Washington. So I look at this a different way. When we were in the last debate, Mayor, you basically mocked the hundred years of experience on the stage. And what do I see on this stage? I see Elizabeth's work starting the Consumer Financial Protection Bureau and helping 29 million people. (APPLAUSE) I see the vice president's work in getting $2 billion for his cancer moon shot. I see Senator Sanders' work -- working to get the veterans bill passed across the aisle. And I see what I've done, which is to negotiate three farm bills and be someone that actually had major provisions put in those bills. So while you can dismiss committee hearings, I think this experience works. And I have not denigrated your experience as a local official. I have been one. BUTTIGIEG: You know -- I'm sorry. KLOBUCHAR: I just think you should respect our experience when you look at how you evaluate someone who can get things done. NAWAZ: Thank you, Senator. Mr. Mayor, I'll give you a chance to respond. (APPLAUSE) BUTTIGIEG: You actually did denigrate my experience, Senator, and it was before the break, and I was going to let it go, because we got bigger fish to fry here. But you implied that my... KLOBUCHAR: Oh, I don't think we have bigger fish to fry than picking a president of the United States. BUTTIGIEG: You're right. And before the break, you seemed to imply that my relationship to the First Amendment was a talking point, as if anyone up here has any more or less commitment to the Constitution than anybody else up here. Let me tell you about my relationship to the First Amendment. It is part of the Constitution that I raised my right hand and swore to defend with my life. That is my experience. And it may not be the same as yours, but it counts, Senator. It counts. NAWAZ: Thank you, Mr. Mayor. Senator Klobuchar, you have 45 seconds to respond. KLOBUCHAR: I have been -- I certainly respect your military experience. That's not what this is about. This is about choosing a president. And I know my view of this is I know you ran to be chair of the Democratic National Committee. That's not something that I wanted to do. I want to be president of the United States. And the point is, we should have someone heading up this ticket that has actually won and been able to show that they can gather the support that you talk about of moderate Republicans and independents, as well as a fired-up Democratic base, and not just done it once, I have done it three times. I think winning matters. I think a track record of getting things done matters. And I also think showing our party that we can actually bring people with us, have a wider tent, have a bigger coalition, and, yes, longer coattails, that matters. NAWAZ: Thank you, Senator. Yamiche? (APPLAUSE) SANDERS: Excuse me. BUTTIGIEG: I got to respond to that. I got to respond to that. Senator, I know that, if you just go by vote totals, maybe what goes on in my city seems small to you. If you want to talk about the capacity to win, try putting together a coalition to bring you back to office with 80 percent of the vote as a gay dude in Mike Pence's Indiana. (APPLAUSE) KLOBUCHAR: Again, I would -- Mayor, if you -- if you had won in Indiana, that would be one thing. You tried and you lost by 20 points. I'm sorry. That's just the math. SANDERS: Let's talk about how we -- excuse me. Let's talk about how we win an election, which is something everybody here wants to do, in terms of defeating the most dangerous president in American history. So let me tell you how you win it: You have the largest voter turnout in the history of America. (APPLAUSE) And you don't have -- you don't have the largest voter turnout unless you create energy and excitement. And you don't create energy and excitement unless you are prepared to take on the people who own America and are prepared to speak to the people who are working in America. We need a progressive agenda -- Medicare for all, raising the minimum wage to a living wage, leading the world in combatting climate change, making public colleges and universities available to all... ALCINDOR: Thank you. Thank you, Senator Sanders. SANDERS: ... because we have free tuition, and canceling all student debt in this country. ALCINDOR: Thank you, Senator Sanders. (APPLAUSE) I'd like to turn to a new subject, and that is, of course, education. Senator Warren, you've proposed free public college tuition and student loan forgiveness for most families. Why should wealthy families be able to send their kids to public college for free? Why not concentrate that government help on those most in need? WARREN: So, as I've talked about before, I have a two cent wealth tax proposed for millionaires and billionaires, and that gives us enough money to invest in all of our babies, age 0 to 5, to put an historic $800 billion investment in public schools K through 12, and that will permit us to offer technical school, two-year college, four-year college for every single person who wants an education, cancel student loan debt for 50 -- put a $50 billion investment in our historically black colleges and universities, and cancel student loan debt for 43 million Americans. Look, this is about money, but this is also about values. We need to make an investment in our future, and the best way to do that is let's invest in the public education of our children. That starts when you're babies and it goes long after high school. We want to have families. I meet families every day in the selfie lines who talk about what it means to be crushed by student loan debt. That's why I have a proposal popular among Democrats, popular among Republicans, popular among independents, to ask those at the top to pay a little more so somebody can get rid of that student loan debt so they can make an investment in themselves, start a small business, buy a car, create a future for themselves and for this country. ALCINDOR: Thank you, Senator. I see some hands, but I want to go to Mayor Buttigieg. BUTTIGIEG: Can I respond? ALCINDOR: Mayor Buttigieg, your plan offers free or discounted public college only to families making up to $150,000 a year. Do you think Senator Warren's plan offers free college to too many families? BUTTIGIEG: I do think that if you're in that lucky top 10 percent -- I still wish you well, don't get me wrong. I just want you to go ahead and pay your own tuition. Now, we can still have public service loan forgiveness for those who go into lower income fields to deal with that. But if you're in that top 10 percent, I think you're going to be for the most part OK. And there is a very real choice on where every one of these tax dollars goes. So I very much agree with Senator Warren on raising more tax revenue from millionaires and billionaires. I just don't agree on the part about spending it on millionaires and billionaires when it comes to their college tuition. ALCINDOR: Thank you, Mayor. Thank you, Mayor Buttigieg. WARREN: So -- no, wait, wait, wait. ALCINDOR: I want to... WARREN: No. He mentioned me by name. ALCINDOR: I'm going to let -- I'm going to let you respond, Senator Warren. Go ahead. WARREN: He mentioned me by name. Look, the mayor wants billionaires to pay one tuition for their own kids. I want a billionaire to pay enough to cover tuition for all of our kids, because that's how we build a future. The other part is we've got to deal with student loan debt. And right now, most of the people on this stage are nibbling around the edges of a huge student loan debt burden that disproportionally affects people of color. African-Americans are more likely to have to borrow money to go to school, more likely to borrow more money while they're in school, and have a harder time paying it off. We want to make an investment in the future? Then open up education for all of our kids. That's how we build a future. ALCINDOR: Thank you, Senator. Senator Sanders? KLOBUCHAR: Could I respond after Bernie? SANDERS: We believe -- I believe in the concept of universality. And one of the crises in America today is people are sick and tired of filling out forms. So you're not eligible for the program today because you're at $150,000, but you lost your job, are you eligible? You get a better job, you're eligible. I think what we have to do is what we do with Social Security, what we do with public education. Donald Trump's kids can go to a public school. They should be able to go to a public school. What we need right now is a revolution in education. We have got to end this dysfunctional childcare system and make sure that every working-class person in this country can find high-quality, affordable childcare. We need to make public colleges and universities tuition-free. And by taxing billionaires and by taxing Wall Street, we will cancel all student debt in this country. ALCINDOR: Thank you, Senator Sanders. Tim? ALBERTA: Switching gears here, Mr. Steyer, earlier this year in Iowa, I met a father, Bill Stumpf, and his son, Kyle, in Dubuque. Kyle is a remarkable young adult with significant disabilities. And though he's been employed for about five years at a local pizza parlor, the future is very uncertain for his family. Bill worries that there aren't enough jobs, living facilities, social programs designed to meet the needs of his son. So I'm wonderful, as president, are there specific steps that you would take to help people like Kyle become more integrated into the workforce and into their local communities? STEYER: Look, the United States has made a commitment to treat everybody equally. And that means supporting people with disabilities, both in terms of education and later when they're part of the workforce. That means bringing the resources to bear to make sure that we're treating them fairly, in school and after school, to try and integrate them fully and to make them have as full a life as possible. The question we've got here across the board is, can we afford to do the kinds of things that Senator Sanders and Senator Warren are pushing? And the answer is yes, that, in fact, what we need to do is to undo the tax breaks that have been given for two generations to rich Americans and big corporations. Last year, the top 400 corporations paid an 11 percent tax. That is absolutely ludicrous. KLOBUCHAR: Could I answer the question? (CROSSTALK) STEYER: So the answer on disabilities is a question of focus and money, as so many of these questions are. We have a country where the government is broken because corporations have bought it, they're getting their way, and for us to get back to government of, by, and for the people that serves Americans, including Americans with disabilities, we're going to have to take that back. (CROSSTALK) ALBERTA: Mr. Yang, I didn't hear a specific answer from Mr. Steyer. Can you outline specific steps that the government should take to help integrate these young people into the workforce and into their local communities? YANG: I would love it. I have a son with special needs. And to me, special needs is the new normal in this country. How many of you all have a family member or a friend or a neighbor with special needs or autism? (APPLAUSE) As you look around, most hands went up. The fact is right now, we have to do more for Kyle. Special needs children are going to become special needs adults in many cases. And here's the challenge. We go to employers and say, hey, this special needs person can be a contributor in your workplace, which may be correct, but that's not the point. We have to stop confusing economic value and human value. We have to be able to say to our kids and Kyle that you have intrinsic value because you're an American and you're a human being. We're going to put a freedom dividend of $1,000 a month in everyone's hands, which is going to help families around the country adapt. And then we're going to take this burden off of the communities and off of the schools who do not have the resources to support kids like my son and make it a federal priority, not a local one, so we're not robbing Peter to pay Paul. ALBERTA: Thank you, Mr. Yang. We have to move on. Judy? (APPLAUSE) WARREN: No, no, no. No, no, no. Come on. (CROSSTALK) ALBERTA: Senator Warren, 45 seconds to you, please. WARREN: So I was a special education teacher. And I loved that work, because it gave me a chance to work straight out with people to recognize the worth of every human being. I had 4- to 6-year-olds who were in special ed. And what do we need to do? That's why I have a plan, as a special ed teacher, to fully fund IDEA, so every child with disabilities will get the full education they need. My housing plan is about investing in more housing across this country, in rural America, in urban America, in small town America, but it's also about making sure that people who want to live independently, people who have disabilities, will have housing available to them. I make a part of my jobs bill that we are going to make sure -- as president, I will make sure that the people who want to bid on federal contracts are treating people with disabilities fairly and paying them fairly. You've got to go at it at every part of what we do, because as a nation, this is truly a measure of who we are. We believe in treating these, the least of thy brethren, as people of value. And that is how we make a better America. (APPLAUSE) ALBERTA: Thank you, Senator Warren. Thank you, Senator Warren. Judy? WOODRUFF: I know we have a lot of hands up. We have so many important topics to discuss. I want to come to you, Senator Klobuchar, on a question of the judges. President Trump has appointed, as we know, two Supreme Court justices. But he's also had confirmed nearly 200 federal judges, most of whom are young and can shape American law for decades to come. Some of them you voted for in the Senate, including one who just yesterday joined a ruling to strike down a key part of the Affordable Care Act. Would President Trump's appointees -- my question is -- make it harder for you as president, for any of you on this stage to enact your agenda? KLOBUCHAR: Of course. And I want to make it clear that I have opposed many, many judges. And I think everyone will remember what happened at the Kavanaugh hearing when that nominee went after me. I stood my ground and he had to apologize. (APPLAUSE) So I have been very strong on these judges. As for the judge you just referred to, there was actually -- the judge that wrote the opinion was a judge that went through the Senate unanimously, with support by Senator Sanders, with support by President Obama, with support by then-Senator Kennedy. So I think it is very important, when we look at these judges, to acknowledge that there are some of these judges that you think are going to be OK and they aren't. But what would I do as president? I would appoint judges that are in the vein of people like Elena Kagan and Justice Breyer and Sonia Sotomayor, and let's not forget the notorious RBG. That's what I would do. (APPLAUSE) And if you look at my record as a lawyer and a member of the Judiciary Committee, look at the judges that I recommended to President Obama, people like Mimi Wright, who is a superstar, and Susan Richard Nelson. Look who I've put in as the first openly gay marshal in the history of the United States. I did that because I knew they were qualified people to take those jobs. And you need to do it not only with the right judges and have that know-how, but you also have to do it right away. That is one thing that we all learned from when President Obama was in, and that was that he was dealing with an economic crisis and it was hard to do it right away, but we have to immediately start putting judges on the bench to fill vacancies so that we can reverse the horrific nature of these Trump judges. WOODRUFF: A follow-up to Mayor Buttigieg. Beyond a pledge not to overturn Roe v. Wade, which I believe all of you have said would be part of your decision-making in choosing a nominee to the court, are there other litmus tests that you would apply in choosing federal judges? BUTTIGIEG: The Supreme Court is very personal for me, because my household, my marriage exists by the grace of a single vote on that body. And, yes, it is critical that we have justices who understand that American freedom includes reproductive rights and reproductive freedom. But that's not all. I expect an understanding that voting rights are human rights. I expect an understanding that equality is required of us all. And I expect a level of respect for the rule of law that prevents this body from coming to be viewed as just one more partisan battlefield, which is why I will not only appoint judges and justices who reflect this worldview, but also begin moving to reform the body itself, as our country has done at least half a dozen times in its history, so that it is not one more political battlefield every single time a vacancy comes up. (APPLAUSE) WOODRUFF: Yamiche? ALCINDOR: Senator Sanders, at least 22 transgender people were killed in the United States this year, move of them transgender women of color. Each of you has said you would push for the passage of the Equality Act, a comprehensive LGBTQ civil rights bill. But if elected, what more would you do to stop violence against transgender people? SANDERS: We need moral leadership in the White House. We need a president who will do everything humanly possible to end all forms of discrimination against the transgender community, against the African-American community, against the Latino community, and against all minorities in this country. But above and beyond providing the moral leadership of trying to bring our people together, what we also need for the transgender community is to make sure that health care is available to every person in this country, regardless of their sexual orientation or their needs. And that is why I strongly support and have helped lead the effort for a Medicare for all single-payer program, which will provide comprehensive health care to all people, including certainly the transgender community. ALCINDOR: Thank you, Senator Sanders. Senator Warren? WARREN: The transgender community has been marginalized in every way possible. And one thing that the president of the United States can do is lift up attention, lift up their voices, lift up their lives. Here's a promise I make. I will go to the Rose Garden once every year to read the names of transgender women, of people of color, who have been killed in the past year. I will make sure that we read their names so that as a nation we are forced to address the particular vulnerability on homelessness. I will change the rules now that put people in prison based on their birth sex identification rather than their current identification. I will do everything I can to make sure that we are an America that leaves no one behind. ALCINDOR: Thank you, Senator Warren. Amna? NAWAZ: Vice President Biden, let's turn now to Afghanistan. Confidential documents published last week by the Washington Post revealed that for years senior U.S. officials misled the public about the war in Afghanistan. As vice president... BIDEN: Afghanistan, you said? NAWAZ: Yes, sir, Afghanistan. As vice president, what did you know about the state of the war? And do you believe that you were honest with the American people about it? BIDEN: The reason I can speak to this -- it's well-known, if any of you followed it, my view on Afghanistan -- I was sent by the president before we got sworn in to Afghanistan to come back with a report. I said there was no comprehensive policy available. And then I got in a big fight for a long time with the Pentagon because I strongly opposed the nation-building notion we set about. Rebuilding that country as a whole nation is beyond our capacity. I argued from the very beginning that we should have a policy that was based on an antiterrorism policy with a very small footprint that, in fact, only had special forces to deal with potential threats from that territory to the United States of America. The first thing I would do as president of the United States of America is to make sure that we brought all combat troops home, entered into a negotiation with the Taliban. But I would leave behind special forces in small numbers to be able to deal with the potential threat unless we got a real good negotiation accomplished to deal with terrorism. That's been my position from the beginning. That's why I think Secretary Gates and some members of the Pentagon weren't happy with me. NAWAZ: Mr. Biden, the question was about your time in the White House, though. BIDEN: I'm talking about the White House. NAWAZ: In that Washington Post report, there's a senior national security official who said that there was constant pressure from the Obama White House to produce figures showing the troop surge was working, and I'm quoting from the report here, "despite hard evidence to the contrary." What do you say to that? BIDEN: Since 2009, go back and look. I was on the opposite side of that with the Pentagon. The only reason I can speak to it now is because it's been published. It's been published thoroughly. I'm the guy from the beginning who argued that it was a big, big mistake to surge forces to Afghanistan, period. We should not have done it. And I argued against it constantly. NAWAZ: Senator Sanders, you had your hand up. (APPLAUSE) SANDERS: Well, in all due respect to my -- Joe, Joe, you're also the guy who helped lead us into the disastrous war in Iraq. What we need to do is, I think, rethink -- and the Washington Post piece was very educational -- what we need to rethink is the entire war on terror. We have lost thousands of our own men and women, brave soldiers. Hundreds of thousands, if not millions of people have been killed abroad or forced to leave their countries. It is time right now that we bring this world together to try to end these endless wars and address the root causes which are causing these wars. NAWAZ: Senator Sanders, you do often point to your vote against the war in Iraq as evidence of your judgment on foreign policy, but you did vote for the war in Afghanistan. And as recently as 2015, you said you supported a continued U.S. troop presence there. Was that support a mistake? SANDERS: Well, only one person, my good friend, Barbara Lee, was right on that issue. She was the only person in the House to vote against the war in Afghanistan. She was right. I was wrong. So was everybody else in the House. But to answer your question, I don't think you do what Trump does and make foreign policy decisions based on a tweet at 3 a.m. in the morning or desert your long-time allies like the Kurds. I think you work with the international community. You remove all troops over a period of time, a short period of time, within one year. NAWAZ: Thank you, Senator. Mayor Buttigieg, you served in this war, but I want to ask about your decision-making if you were elected commander-in-chief. You have pledged to withdraw all U.S. troops from Afghanistan within your first year as president, but the Taliban today control or contest more than half the country. So should you as president still withdraw all those U.S. troops if the country could once again become a haven for terrorists? BUTTIGIEG: We're going to leave one way or the other. The question is to make sure we do it well and not poorly. And of course, that has to respond to the conditions on the ground and the need for a political settlement. But, you know, the other day, I was reunited with somebody that I'd served with over there. And the thing we were marveling at is how long it's been since we left. I thought I was one of the last troops turning out the lights when I left years ago, and we're still there. There may need to be some kind of limited special operations and intelligence capacity, the exact same kind of thing, by the way, that we actually had in Syria holding the line before the president yanked it out, leading to the road to chaos. But what we know is that we cannot go on with these endless wars. And I'm glad that the name of Barbara Lee was mentioned, not only because of what she's talked about years ago. I believe that we had no choice but to go to Afghanistan after 9/11. But right now, she is one of the leaders of the effort to repeal and replace the authorization for the use of military force and the folks that I served with deserve that. They deserve the clarity of members of Congress being able to summon the courage to take an up-or-down vote on whether they ought to be there in the first place. And when I am president, any time, if I am forced to deploy troops into war, any time we seek an authorization, it will have a three-year sunset, so that if there really does have to be a conversation about extending it, it has to be brought to Congress, brought to the American people, and those members of Congress have to take that tough up-or-down vote. NAWAZ: Thank you, Mr. Mayor. Tim? ALBERTA: Thanks, Amna. Moving to health care, an issue that voters tell us every day is still the number-one priority for them, Senator Sanders, you've spent plenty of time discussing and defending the merits of your Medicare for all plan. But the reality is that if Republicans retain control of the U.S. Senate or even if Democrats win back a narrow Senate majority, your plan as constituted probably would not have the votes to pass Congress. So the question, Senator, is, if Congress rejects your plan and the American people are looking to you for leadership on this issue, are there smaller specific measures that you would take immediately to expand coverage and decrease costs as president? SANDERS: Well, Tim, at a time when we're spending twice as much per capita on health care as any other nation, when 87 million people are uninsured or underinsured, when 30,000 people are dying each year because they don't get to a doctor when they should, and when a half a million people are going bankrupt because of the dysfunctional and cruel system that we currently have, you know what? I think we will pass a Medicare for all single-payer system, and I will introduce that legislation in my first week in office. Now, to answer your question, I think when we go out to the American people and tell them that right now we have got to take on the greed and corruption of the pharmaceutical industry, for example, which in some cases charges us 10 times more for the same exact drug as is charged in this country, when the American people understand that Medicare for all expands Medicare to cover home health care, dental care, eyeglasses, and hearing aids, and does it at a cost far, far lower than what some of my opponents are talking about, you know what? We're going to have the American people behind us. We will have Congress behind us. ALBERTA: Thank you, Senator Sanders. Vice President Biden, I'd like to bring you in. You spent an awful lot of time 10 years ago trying to pass a bill far less ambitious than what Senator Sanders is talking about here. Is he being realistic? BIDEN: I don't think it is realistic, but let me explain why. I introduced a plan to build on Obamacare. Remind everybody, 20 million people got insurance who didn't have it before. All people with pre-existing conditions were able to be covered. I could go on. We didn't get all that we wanted. But now that it's been exposed, that taking it away has such dire consequences, I've added to the Obamacare plan the Biden initiative, which is a public option, Medicare if you want to have Medicare, reducing significantly the price of drugs, deductibles, et cetera, by -- made by underwriting the plan to a tune of about $750 billion, and making sure that we're able to cover everyone who is, in fact, able to be covered. Put your hand down for a second, Bernie, OK? (APPLAUSE) SANDERS: Just waving to you, Joe. BIDEN: I know. I know. SANDERS: Saying hello. BIDEN: I know. So, look, it covers everybody. It's realistic. And most importantly, it lets you choose what you want. Here you have 160 million people who negotiated their health care plans with their employer, like many of you have. You may or may not like it. If you don't like it, you can move into the public option that I propose in my plan. But if you like it, you shouldn't have -- you shouldn't have Washington dictating to you, you cannot keep the plan you have. ALBERTA: Thank you, Vice President Biden. BIDEN: That's a... (APPLAUSE) ALBERTA: Senator Sanders, 45 seconds to respond. SANDERS: Under Joe's plan, essentially we retain the status quo. BIDEN: That's not true. SANDERS: It is exactly true. KLOBUCHAR: No, that's not right. SANDERS: And but -- thank you. And, by the way, Joe, under your plan, you know, you asked me how are we going to pay for it? Under your plan, I'll tell you how we're paying for it right now. The average worker in America, their family makes $60,000 a year. That family is now paying $12,000 a year for health care, 20 percent of their income. Under Medicare for all, that family will be paying $1,200 a year, because we're eliminating the profiteering of the drug companies and the insurance companies and ending this byzantine and complex administration of thousands of separate health care plans. ALBERTA: Senator Klobuchar, I'm going to come to you... (CROSSTALK) BIDEN: My name was mentioned. ALBERTA: I'm going to come to you, but 45 seconds... BIDEN: I'm the only guy that's not interrupted. ALBERTA: Forty-five seconds for Vice President Biden. BIDEN: I'm the only guy that's not interrupted here, all right? And I'm going to interrupt now. It costs $30 trillion. Let's get that straight, $30 trillion over 10 years. Some say it costs $20 trillion. Some say it costs $40 trillion. The idea that you're going to be able to save that person making $60,000 a year on Medicare for all is absolutely preposterous. Sixteen percent of the American public is on Medicare now and everybody has a tax taken out of their paycheck now. Tell me, you're going to add 84 percent more and there's not going to be higher taxes? At least before he was honest about it. SANDERS: Joe... BIDEN: It's going to increase personal taxes. There are going to be... SANDERS: That's right, we are going to increase personal taxes. But we're eliminating premiums, we're eliminating co-payments, we're eliminating deductibles, we're eliminating all out-of-pocket expenses, and no family in America will spend more than $200 a year on prescription drugs. KLOBUCHAR: OK. ALBERTA: Senator Klobuchar... (CROSSTALK) SANDERS: ... our plan will save the average worker... (CROSSTALK) ALBERTA: Senator Klobuchar, we'd like to hear from -- we'd like to hear from you... (CROSSTALK) KLOBUCHAR: Whoa, guys, hey. BIDEN: It's the first time I did this. KLOBUCHAR: OK, that's true. I'll say this. First of all, Bernie, I promise, when I am your president, I will get our pharmaceutical bills done. And we have worked together on this time and time again. And I agree with you on that. But where I disagree is, I just don't think anyone has a monopoly on bold ideas. I think you can be progressive and practical at the same time. That is why I favor a public option, which is a nonprofit option, to bring the cost down. And, yes, it does bring the costs down immediately for 13 million people, and then we'll expand coverage to 12 million people. But here's the political problem. This fight that you guys are having isn't real. Your fight, Bernie, is not with me or with Vice President Biden. It is with all those -- bunch of those new House members, not every one by any means, that got elected in that last election in the Democratic Party. It is with the new governor, Democratic governor of Kentucky, that wants to build on Obamacare. And the way I look at it, if you want to bridge -- build -- if you want cross a river over some troubled waters, you build a bridge, you don't blow one up. And I think that we should build on the Affordable Care Act. (APPLAUSE) SANDERS: She mentioned my name... ALBERTA: Thank you, Senator Klobuchar. Senator Warren, we would like to bring you in. SANDERS: Excuse me. She mentioned -- she took my name in vain. KLOBUCHAR: Oh. (LAUGHTER) SANDERS: She hurt my feelings. I am crushed. Can I respond? KLOBUCHAR: I would never do that to you. I would never, never, never. SANDERS: My fight, Amy... ALBERTA: All right. Forty-five seconds, Senator Sanders. SANDERS: All right. My fight, Amy, is not with the governor of Kentucky. My fight and all of our fights must be with the greed and corruption of the pharmaceutical industry, with the greed and corruption of the insurance industry. These guys last year made $100 billion in profit and tens of millions of Americans cannot afford to go to a doctor tonight. The day has got to come -- and Joe is not talking about it, Amy is not talking about it -- the day has got to come, and I will bring that day about, when we finally say to the drug companies and the insurance companies, the function of health care is to provide it for all of our people in a cost-effective way, not to make massive profits for the drug companies and the insurance companies. ALBERTA: Thank you, Senator Sanders. Senator Warren... (CROSSTALK) ALBERTA: We'd like -- we'd like to bring you into this discussion. The same question to you that I posed to Senator Sanders, if Congress rejects a Medicare for all proposal and you're the president, are there smaller specific measures that you could pursue with bipartisan support to decrease costs and expand coverage? WARREN: So this is about costs. It's about costs on middle-class families. Last year, 36 million Americans didn't have a prescription filled because they couldn't afford it. And those are people with health insurance, as well. People who can't do the co-pays, people who can't do the deductibles, people who find out that the drug is not covered. So here's how I approach this. I want to do the most good I can for the most people as quickly as possible. On day one, I'm going to attack the prices on commonly used drugs, like EpiPens and insulin, and bring down those prices. The president can do that -- I love saying this -- all by herself. And I will do it. That's going to save families hundreds of millions of dollars. And then in the first 100 days, because I found a way to pay for full health care coverage for everyone without raising taxes on middle-class families... ALBERTA: Thank you, Senator. WARREN: ... I'm going to make available to people for a full health care coverage for 135 million people. It will be at no cost at all. And they can opt into that system. ALBERTA: Thank you, Senator Warren. WARREN: For others, it will be at a low cost. We have got to start moving and move fast. ALBERTA: We do have to move on. WARREN: We can do that -- we can do that on 50 votes. ALBERTA: Thank you, Senator. Judy? WOODRUFF: We are coming to the end of our time. A lot of hands up, we apologize for that. But in the spirit of the season, I'd like to ask each one of you, is there someone else among these candidates that you would -- you have two options, one, a candidate from whom you would ask forgiveness for something maybe that was said tonight or another time, or -- or a candidate to whom you would like to give a gift. And I'm going to start with you, Mr. Yang. YANG: Wow. (LAUGHTER) WARREN: We can do a labor action and just all go on strike on this one, Andrew. (LAUGHTER) YANG: I don't think I have much to ask forgiveness for. You all can correct me on this. In terms of a gift, Elizabeth has done me the honor of starting to read my book. WARREN: Yes. YANG: I would love to give each of you a copy of my book. (LAUGHTER) (APPLAUSE) It's about how we're going through the greatest economic transformation in our country's history, the fourth industrial revolution. It is grinding up our communities. And D.C. is out to lunch on this. Our media organizations are not covering it adequately. I wrote a book on it, and if you like data, this book is for you. This goes for the people at home, too, if you like data and books. (LAUGHTER) WOODRUFF: Mayor Buttigieg. Mayor Buttigieg, ask forgiveness or give a gift? BUTTIGIEG: Well, first of all, I love data and books, so I think we should all be excited about this. And come to think of it, I should probably send my book around more, too. Look... YANG: Your publisher will thank you. BUTTIGIEG: I think all of us will want the same thing at the end of the day. We know what a gift it would be to the future and to the country for literally anybody up here to become president of the United States compared to what we've got. (APPLAUSE) And we've got to remember, there are I don't know how many now -- we're up to 25 something have run for president in the Democratic president. The moment we've got a nominee, the 24 who aren't that nominee are going to have to rally around the one who does. Let's make sure there's not too much to ask forgiveness for by the time that day comes. (APPLAUSE) WOODRUFF: Senator Warren? WARREN: I will ask for forgiveness. I know that sometimes I get really worked up, and sometimes I get a little hot. I don't really mean to. What happens is, when you do 100,000 selfies with people... (LAUGHTER) ... you hear enough stories about people who are really down to their last moments. You know, I met someone just last week in Nevada who said that he has diabetes and that he has access to a prescription because he's a veteran. But his sister has diabetes and his daughter has diabetes, and they simply can't afford insulin. So the three of them spend all of their time figuring out how to stretch one insulin prescription among three people. When I think about what we could do if we get a majority in the House, a majority in the Senate, and get back the White House, we could make this country work for people like that man. And that's why I'm in this fight. (APPLAUSE) WOODRUFF: Vice President Biden? BIDEN: I think everyone up here on this stage, and those who are not on this stage who've run, we owe them, because they're all pushing for the exact same thing. You're not the only one that does selfies, Senator. I've done thousands of them, thousands of them. And the crew that follows me can tell you, there's not one line I go through that I don't have at least a half a dozen people come up and hug me and say, can you help me? I just lost my daughter 10 days ago. Can you help me? Tell me I'm going to be OK. Can you help me? I just lost -- and they go and lay out their problems. My wife and I have a call list of somewhere between 20 and 100 people that we call at least every week or every month to tell them, I'm here. I give them my private phone number. They keep in touch with me. The little kid who says, I can't talk, what do I do? I have scores of these young women and men who I keep in contact with. And the reason I would give everyone here a gift is because they want to do something like I do of making their lives better, because there's a lot of people who are hurting very, very, very badly. (APPLAUSE) WOODRUFF: Senator Sanders, forgiveness or a gift? SANDERS: Well, I can give out any one of four books that I wrote. (LAUGHTER) But I think the gift that all of us need to give to the American people is a very, very different vision of the reality of the Trump administration. And the vision that we need to bring forth is to create a government and a nation based on love and compassion, not greed and hatred. (APPLAUSE) We need a vision which says that in our great country, all of our people should be able to earn a decent standard of living, have health care, have the ability to send their kids to college, regardless of their income. So we need a new vision which brings our people together around an agenda that works for all, not the Trump vision of dividing us up to benefit the billionaire class. That's my vision. WOODRUFF: Senator Klobuchar? KLOBUCHAR: Well, I would ask for forgiveness any time any of you get mad at me. I can be blunt. But I am doing this because I think it is so important to pick the right candidate here. I do. I think when you see what's going on around the country, yes, it's the economic check that Elizabeth and Bernie have so well pointed out on this stage, but there's something else going on here, and it is a decency check. It is a values check. It is a patriotism check. When you see people -- and we've all had this happen -- that come to our meetings and say, you know, yeah, I voted for Donald Trump, but I don't want to do it again, because I want my kids to be able to watch the president on TV and not mute the TV. We have to remember as Democrats, and if I get worked up about this, it's because I believe it so much in my heart, that we have to bring people with us and not shut them out. That is the gift we can give America in this election. (APPLAUSE) WOODRUFF: Mr. Steyer? STEYER: So, look, this is the holiday season. And what I'm hearing from every single one of these candidates is that they've gone around the United States and what they've seen from this administration and what they've seen from the Republican Party is cruelty towards the people of the United States for money. So when I think about the gift that I'd like to give -- and I've seen that, too. I mean, I think it starts with cruelty when children are born and it goes right through life into pre-K, education, health care, a living wage. There is cruelty to working people, there is cruelty to seniors. And so the gift that I would like to give everyone on this stage, which was the original question, is the gift of teamwork. Because the question up here is, how are we together going to change this framework? How are we together going to beat this corrupt and criminal president? How are we going to stand up for the people of the United States together, not by tearing each other down, but by supporting each other and by realizing that what we stand for is the true value of America? And as a team, that's how we're going to do it. And as Americans, we're going to come together to stand up for the original values -- freedom, equality, justice, teamwork. (APPLAUSE) WOODRUFF: That -- we are going to take a very short break. That does conclude our questions tonight here at Loyola Marymount University. We'll be back in just two minutes to hear the candidates' closing statements. (COMMERCIAL BREAK) WOODRUFF: Welcome back to the PBS NewsHour Democratic debate with Politico. And now it's time for closing statements. Each have 60 seconds, beginning with Mr. Steyer. STEYER: I'm different from everybody else on this stage, and here's why. I'm running because corporations have bought our government and we need to return power to the people. And for the last 10 years, that's exactly what I've been doing, taking on unchecked corporate power. That's why I'm for term limits, because if we're going to have bold change, then we need new people in charge and new ideas. I'm the only person on this stage who's built a large, multibillion-dollar international business. I know how to grow prosperity. I can take on Mr. Trump on the economy and beat him. I'm the only one on this stage who said climate is my number-one priority. It's a crisis we have to deal with, but it's also our greatest opportunity to create millions of good-paying union jobs across the country and clean up the air and water in the black and brown communities where it's so essential. So if you want to break the corporate stranglehold, beat Mr. Trump on the economy, and solve our climate crisis, I can deliver. And I'm asking for your vote. WOODRUFF: Mr. Yang. I'm sorry. My apology for interrupting. (APPLAUSE) Mr. Yang? YANG: I know what you're thinking, America. How am I still on this stage with them? (APPLAUSE) Our campaign is growing all the time because we are laser-focused on solving the real problems that got Donald Trump elected in the first place. I spent seven years helping create thousands of jobs in Detroit, Baltimore, New Orleans, and other cities, serving as an ambassador of entrepreneurship under President Obama, and I saw firsthand what many of you already know. Our country is falling apart. Our senior citizens are working until the day they die. Our kids are addicted to smartphones or drugs. We're seeing record high levels of depression and suicides, overdoses. Our companies are recording record profits while our people are literally dying younger. Our way of life is changing faster than ever, and the simple fact is this. Our politicians in D.C. succeed whether we the people succeed or fail. Washington, D.C., today is the richest city in our country. What do they produce? Bad decisions? (LAUGHTER) We need to get the money out of D.C. and into your hands, the hands of the American people. Join us at yang2020.com and help us rewrite the rules of the 21st century economy to work for us. (APPLAUSE) WOODRUFF: Thank you. Senator Klobuchar? KLOBUCHAR: We have had quite a debate tonight, but I want to debate Donald Trump. This primary comes down to some simple questions. Who has the best ideas, the best experience? Mostly, who can beat Donald Trump, and how will she do it? So Donald Trump built his fortune on, over time, over $413 million that he got from his dad. My grandpa, he was an iron ore miner, a union member, who worked 1,500 feet underground, and he saved money in a coffee can in the basement to send my dad to a community college. That's my family trust. And I figure if you are given opportunity, you don't go into the world with a sense of entitlement. You go into it with a sense of obligation, an obligation to lift people up instead of hoarding what you have for yourself. Our politics right now, because of Donald Trump, are toxic. We need a leader who can bring people together and who can win that way. So if you are tired of the extremes in our politics and the noise and the nonsense, you have a home with me. If you want a bigger tent and a wider coalition and longer coattails, join me. We will win at amyklobuchar.com. WOODRUFF: Thank you. (APPLAUSE) Mayor Buttigieg? BUTTIGIEG: So the nominee is going to have to do two things: defeat Donald Trump and unite the country as president. It's a tall order. And in order to do it, we're going to need a nominee and a president who can respond to the crisis of belonging that is gripping our nation today. That means building up a politics that is defined not by who we exclude, not by who we reject, but by how many people we can call to this side. I have seen so many people capable of forming that multiracial, multigenerational coalition. And I am seeing more and more people who maybe have not felt welcome in the Democratic Party before but belong here now because they're definitely not on board with what's going on in the Trump White House. I am asking you to join me, to vote for me, to caucus for me, and to help us build that future defined not by exclusion, but by belonging. (APPLAUSE) WOODRUFF: Senator Warren? WARREN: Did you call my name? This is a dark moment in America, and yet I come here tonight with a heart filled with hope. All three of my brothers served in the military. They're all retired. They're all back in Oklahoma. One is a Democrat. Two are Republicans. But you know what unites my three brothers? Amazon. They are furious that Amazon reported $10 billion in profits and paid zero in taxes. My brothers are part of why America is ready to root out corruption and fight back. And that gives us a base to work from. America is ready for a two cent wealth tax. It's supported by Republicans, Democrats, and independents. And it lets us invest in all of our children. America is ready to expand Social Security payments and disability payments by $200 a month. And we can do it. You know, someone asked what this would mean. You just give somebody $200 a month, they asked me this in a town hall. And a lady who wanted it said, you know what it will mean to me? It will mean I can get a prescription filled and I can still buy toilet paper the same week. That's where Americans are right now. I am not working for millionaires and billionaires. I'm here to work for the tens of millions of people across this country who are ready to build an America that won't just work for those at the top, but that will work for everyone. WOODRUFF: Thank you, Senator. (APPLAUSE) Senator Sanders? SANDERS: For 45 years, Americans have been listening to great speeches. And at the end of the day, the average American worker is not making a nickel more than he or she did in real wages over those 45 years. The truth is that real change always takes place -- real change -- always takes place from the bottom on up, never from the top on down. And that is why in this campaign I am so proud that we have over a million volunteers. We have some of the strongest grassroots organizations. We have raised more individual contributions than any candidate in American history. Please join the political revolution at berniesanders.com. Let's defeat Trump. Let's transform this country. Thank you. (APPLAUSE) WOODRUFF: And finally, Vice President Biden. BIDEN: I want to thank everyone listening seven days out from Christmas. Thank you very much. Look, we all have big progressive plans. And the question is, who can deliver on those plans? And it seems to me, we have to ask ourselves three questions straight up and honestly. Who has the best chance, the most likely chance of defeating Donald Trump? Who is the one who's most likely to do that? Number two, who can help elect Democrats to the United States Senate in states like North Carolina and Georgia and Arizona and other states? And thirdly, who can deliver legislatively? That requires you to look at our records. I have a significant record of getting significant things done, from Violence Against Women Act to the chemical weapons treaty, in foreign and domestic policy alike. And so I think asking those questions, I believe, as you would expect, that I'm the most qualified to answer those three questions. But most of all, we've got to level with the American people. Don't play games with them. Tell them the truth and be authentic. God bless you all, and may you have a great, great holiday season. And thank you guys for doing this, as well. WOODRUFF: Thank you. (APPLAUSE) Thank you very much. And that concludes the PBS NewsHour-Politico debate. I do want to thank my colleagues here at the moderator table, Tim Alberta of Politico, Amna Nawaz and Yamiche Alcindor of the PBS NewsHour. Thank you all for joining us. Please stick around and watch PBS for some analysis. Thank you to the candidates. END
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